Table 1—

Participant characteristics

CDI score <13CDI score ≥13
n12322P
Age (years)14.9 ± 2.415.5 ± 1.7NS
Sex (% female)51820.008
Ethnicity (% Caucasian)9491NS
Family structure (%)NS
    Two-parent7973
    One-parent2127
SES (Hollingshead)*2.4 ± 1.22.7 ± 1.3NS
Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)8.1 ± 3.59.3 ± 3.8NS
BGM frequency (% ≥4 times/day)63360.02
Mode of insulin therapy (% ≥4 injections/day or CSII)5345NS
A1C (%)8.6 ± 1.49.3 ± 1.50.02
DFRQ (responsibility)
    Child report30.8 ± 5.031.4 ± 5.2NS
    Parent report35.3 ± 5.434.9 ± 4.6NS
DFCS (family conflict)
    Child report23.4 ± 3.826.7 ± 4.00.0002
    Parent report24.1 ± 3.826.9 ± 5.10.02
BGMC (negative affect)
    Child report11.3 ± 2.813.5 ± 3.90.02
    Parent report13.5 ± 3.514.1 ± 2.9NS
PAID-P (burden)
    Parent report only51.6 ± 13.260.5 ± 10.00.003
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Poorer family functioning is indicated by higher scores on the Diabetes Family Conflict Scale (DFCS), Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire (DFRQ), Blood Glucose Monitoring Communication questionnaire (BGMC), and the Problem Area in Diabetes-Parent (PAID-P) survey.

  • *

    * Scale: 1, major professionals; 2, minor professionals; 3, skilled workers; 4, semiskilled workers; 5, unskilled workers; 6, unemployed/retired/students. CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; SES, socioeconomic status.