Table 1—

Characteristics of 54 MIR and SIR adolescents compared with normal NW adolescents

NWMIRSIR
n762331
Age (years)13.1 ± 0.213.3 ± 0.413.6 ± 0.3
Sex (male/female)*35/4110/1317/14
Ethnicity
    African American*331114
    American white431217
Tanner stage*
    II–III34920
    IV–V421411
FH of type 2 diabetes*
    Absent3397
    Present421323
BMI (kg/m2)20.1 ± 0.332.6 ± 1.136.6 ± 0.9§
Percent body fat20.3 ± 1.042.5 ± 1.244.2 ± 0.7
Fat mass (kg)10.1 ± 0.635.2 ± 1.839.0 ± 1.3
FFM (kg)37.6 ± 1.044.8 ± 1.547.4 ± 1.9
Waist-to-hip ratio0.82 ± 0.0060.85 ± 0.020.92 ± 0.02§
Subcutaneous fat (cm2)100.3 ± 7.1485.0 ± 36.6557.8 ± 23.8§
Visceral fat (cm2)21.2 ± 1.457.6 ± 5.582.7 ± 6.9§
Insulin sensitivity (μmol · kg−1 · min−1 per pmol/l)8.8 ± 0.373.4 ± 0.221.5 ± 0.08§
Adiponectin (μg/ml)12.7 ± 0.78.6 ± 0.96.7 ± 0.6
Cholesterol (mmol/l)3.9 ± 0.094.3 ± 0.164.4 ± 0.17
HDL (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.031.1 ± 0.041.0 ± 0.03
LDL (mmol/l)2.2 ± 0.082.6 ± 0.122.8 ± 0.13
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.98 ± 0.051.24 ± 0.191.35 ± 0.09
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * The χ2 analysis revealed no significant differences among groups with respect to ethnicity, sex, Tanner stage, and family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes. The following symbols indicate ANOVA P values for post hoc analysis (Bonferroni correction):

  • P < 0.05 in NW vs. MIR subjects;

  • P < 0.05 in NW vs. SIR subjects;

  • §

    § P < 0.05 in MIR vs. SIR subjects. One individual in the NW group, one in the MIR group, and another one in the SIR group had no information on family history of type 2 diabetes. Waist-to-hip ratio data was available on 63 NW, 18 MIR, and 25 SIR subjects.