Table 2—

Biological variables at baseline and net change between districts from baseline to follow-up

Baseline values*
Change during 3 years
Intervention district (n = 890)Control district (n = 876)Group difference P valueNet change intervention versus control districtP value
Resting heart rate (beats/min)
    Men73.9 ± 12.971.3 ± 12.10.003−1.70 (−3.31 to −0.10)0.038
    Women76.6 ± 11.474.9 ± 11.40.02−0.27 (−1.51 to 0.98)0.68
Body mass (kg)
    Men86.1 ± 15.684.8 ± 14.60.22−1.24 (−1.88 to −0.60)<0.001
        aged <50 years84.8 ± 15.882.9 ± 15.30.26−1.11 (−2.01 to −0.21)0.02
        aged >50 years87.2 ± 15.386.5 ± 13.70.61−1.30 (−2.21 to −0.39)0.005
    Women72.3 ± 13.570.0 ± 12.80.006−0.25 (−0.86 to 0.35)0.41
        aged <50 years71.3 ± 14.069.3 ± 13.40.110.36 (−0.49 to 1.22)0.41
        aged >50 years73.3 ± 13.070.8 ± 11.90.03−0.73 (−1.57 to 0.12)0.09
BMI (kg/m2)
    Men27.5 ± 4.327.0 ± 3.90.07−0.42 (−0.63 to −0.21)<0.001
    Women26.8 ± 4.826.0 ± 4.60.01−0.06 (−0.29 to 0.17)0.61
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
    Men134.5 ± 17.2129.4 ± 17.2<0.001−3.79 (−5.74 to −1.84)<0.001
        aged <50 years129.0 ± 13.3126.8 ± 16.00.150.22 (−2.27 to 2.70)0.86
        aged >50 years138.7 ± 18.7131.7 ± 18.0<0.001−7.13 (−10.01 to −4.24)<0.001
    Women127.3 ± 16.5119.5 ± 17.7<0.001−3.52 (−5.17 to −1.86)<0.001
        aged <50 years120.8 ± 13.1114.9 ± 16.6<0.001−2.49 (−4.55 to −0.42)0.02
        aged >50 years133.0 ± 17.1124.8 ± 17.4<0.001−4.45 (−7.06 to −1.85)0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Men5.8 ± 1.05.8 ± 1.00.96−0.10 (−0.23 to 0.02)0.11
    Women5.6 ± 1.15.6 ± 1.00.59−0.03 (−0.14 to 0.07)0.53
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Men1.26 ± 0.331.30 ± 0.350.080.024 (−0.005 to 0.053)0.10
    Women1.54 ± 0.391.54 ± 0.400.860.009 (−0.022 to 0.040)0.56
Cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio
    Men4.86 ± 1.414.73 ± 1.410.17−0.21 (−0.36 to −0.06)0.006
    Women3.86 ± 1.093.87 ± 1.160.85−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.05)0.30
Triglycerides (mmol/l)
    Men2.4 ± 1.52.1 ± 1.20.005−0.22 (−0.40 to −0.05)0.01
    Women1.7 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.00.04−0.11 (−0.22 to 0.00)0.046
Glucose (mmol/l)
    Men6.0 ± 2.95.7 ± 1.90.12−0.35 (−0.67 to −0.03)0.03
    Women5.4 ± 1.45.4 ± 1.50.47−0.02 (−0.18 to 0.14)0.82
  • Data are means ± SD or means (95% CI).

  • *

    * All numbers are identical with or close to the n reported at the top of each column.

  • Reported also by age due to interaction.

  • Serum levels of lipids and glucose are adjusted for time since last meal both at baseline and follow-up.