Table 1—

Comparison of baseline characteristics between men and women who developed or did not develop diabetes at 6 years*

Men
Women
NondiabeticDiabeticAge-adjusted P valueNondiabeticDiabeticAge-adjusted P value
n1,323601,40730
Age (years)46.9 ± 9.950.5 ± 9.647.4 ± 9.953.2 ± 8.2
A1C (%)5.4 ± 0.45.8 ± 0.5<0.00015.3 ± 0.45.9 ± 0.6<0.0001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.54 ± 0.486.17 ± 0.50<0.00015.17 ± 0.466.00 ± 0.61<0.0001
Insulin (pmol/l)41.1 ×/÷ 1.757.9 ×/÷ 1.8<0.000139.2 ×/÷ 1.664.5 ×/÷ 1.8<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)25.1 ± 2.927.6 ± 4.3<0.000123.6 ± 3.729.4 ± 6.0<0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)89 ± 998 ± 11<0.000177 ± 1091 ± 13<0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.51 ± 0.381.47 ± 0.440.31.82 ± 0.421.48 ± 0.38<0.0001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.12 ×/÷ 1.71.67 ×/÷ 1.8<0.00010.84 ×/÷ 1.641.50 ×/÷ 1.57<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)132 ± 14139 ± 160.001126 ± 14138 ± 160.0005
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 1084 ± 90.177 ± 983 ± 60.003
Hypertension (%)42630.00829630.006
Family history of diabetes (%)17250.0820470.0006
Sporting activity (%)
    None46535077
    Moderate (<1 session per week)20220.515130.03
    Frequent (≥1 session per week)34253510
Smoking (%)25280.212130.2
Alcohol intake (%)
    None1373627
    Moderate73650.0241500.5
    Elevated14282323
Child with birth weight >4 kg15310.03
  • Data are means ± SD, geometric mean ×/÷ SD, or column %.

  • *

    * Comparisons are adjusted on age.

  • Arterial hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or an antihypertensive treatment (30).

  • Alcohol intake coding: no consumption, moderate (1–20 g/day for women and 1–40 g/day for men), and elevated (>20 g/day for women and >40 g/day for men).