Table 3—

Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of prevalent diabetes by category of the sum of six POPs after stratified by age, sex, race and ethnicity, poverty income ratio, or BMI

Category of the sum of six persistent organic pollutants
PtrendPinteraction
<25th25th to <50th50th to <75th75th to <90th≥90th
Age
    20–39 years
        Cases/n1/3888/2581/781/100/0
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent7.6 (0.9–65.2)3.4 (0.2–61.8)19.6 (0.9–434.6)0.092
    40–59 years
        Cases/n0/6216/18822/22812/6912/39
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent5.4 (0.7–42.4)4.6 (0.6–36.2)10.4 (1.3–86.3)18.0 (2.1–154.1)<0.001
    ≥60 years
        Cases/n1/1310/5930/22152/19651/207
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent2.3 (0.2–21.0)1.5 (0.2–12.4)3.9 (0.5–32.8)3.8 (0.4–32.3)<0.001<0.001
Sex
    Men
        Cases/n0/21215/23734/26733/10719/80
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent11.7 (1.5–90.5)16.0 (2.0–125.0)45.6 (5.6–369.0)27.3 (3.2–230.0)<0.001
    Women
        Cases/n2/25119/26819/26032/16844/166
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent8.0 (1.8–36.0)7.2 (1.5–33.8)18.0 (3.7–87.4)26.2 (5.2–131.3)<0.0010.985
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic whites
        Cases/n2/22414/23618/26627/13718/106
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent5.6 (1.2–26.4)3.4 (0.7–16.9)9.4 (1.8–48.6)6.8 (1.2–37.7)0.026
    Non-Hispanic blacks
        Cases/n0/785/8210/818/3818/74
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent3.8 (0.4–34.6)5.6 (0.6–51.2)8.1 (0.8–84.6)6.0 (0.6–64.4)0.246
    Mexican Americans
        Cases/n0/1118/13420/14924/8324/54
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent4.9 (0.6–40.9)7.4 (0.9–60.9)16.4 (1.9–140.9)26.5 (3.0–238.2)<0.0010.073
Poverty income ratio
    < Median (2.18)
        Cases/n0/21521/21231/22439/12440/128
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent19.1 (2.5–145.0)22.7 (2.9–177.3)65.1 (8.1–525.1)69.8 (8.5–571.7)<0.0010.805
    ≥ Median (2.18)
        Cases/n2/24813/29322/30326/15123/118
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent5.1 (1.1–23.7)4.5 (1.0–21.1)10.7 (2.2–51.7)8.8 (1.7–44.9)<0.001
BMI
    <25 kg/m2
        Cases/n0/1766/1714/1458/719/60
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent6.2 (0.7–55.5)3.0 (0.3–33.1)11.6 (1.0–132.4)16.2 (1.4–192.2)0.013
    25 to <30 kg/m2
        Cases/n1/15814/18120/20625/11723/106
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent11.0 (1.4–85.3)9.2 (1.1–73.9)20.6 (2.5–171.5)19.8 (2.3–170.5)0.002
    ≥30 kg/m2
        Cases/n1/12914/15329/17632/8731/80
        Adjusted OR (95% CI)Referent11.5 (1.5–90.8)19.4 (2.4–155.6)53.4 (6.4–445.5)50.1 (5.8–433.1)<0.0010.504
  • Adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, poverty income ratio, BMI, and waist circumference; continuous values of age, BMI, and waist circumference were adjusted in all models. In the subgroups with zero cases in the lowest category, we artificially added one case to that category; covariates were evaluated at the median values of noncases in the category.