Table 3—

Analysis of intervention components

FeatureFeature prevalence (%)Number of participants studiedPercent success rate
Rate difference (%)
With feature (%)Without feature (%)
Target of the intervention
    Patient: intervention targets knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of patients70.5 (12/17) (21,22,25,2730,3236)2,03667607
    System: intervention targets information systems, access to care, and/or health care provider roles41 (7/17) (2023,25,26,31)2,53271609
    Provider: intervention targets the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of providers6 (1/17) (24)427069−69*
How the intervention is designed
    Language or literacy tailoring: intervention is tailored to the specific populations’ language or literacy level53 (9/17) (21,22,24,29,30,3234,36)1,98167634
    Cultural tailoring: intervention is tailored to the specific populations’ culture29 (5/17) (22,29,30,33,34)937805822
    Needs assessment: intervention is designed based on an assessment of patient’s needs18 (3/17) (27,29,30)5791005743*
Who delivered the intervention
    Health care provider: delivered by a licensed health care provider82 (14/17) (2023,2531,33,34,36)3,5196467−3
    Community educator/ layperson led: delivered by a layperson trained to deliver the intervention29 (5/17) (25,29,30,32,35)967805822
Setting of the intervention
    Primary care: delivered in the primary care system (e.g. family practice)59 (10/17) (20,2228,30,31)3,1896071−11
    Community based: delivered outside of the health care setting (e.g. local church)23.5 (4/17) (29,32,34,35)722756213*
    Hospital based: delivered in a clinic affiliated with a hospital18 (3/17) (21,33,36)40167643*
How the intervention was delivered
    Individual: intervention is delivered individually, one on one76 (13/17) (2028,3033)3,750694029
    Individualized assessment: patient is assessed individually and intervention is tailored to the assessment76 (13/17) (2028,3033)3,570695019
    Reassessment/reintervention: patient attends follow-up visit for reassessment and further education or management59 (10/17) (2022,25,2730,32,33)2,084804337
    Group: intervention is delivered to a group of patients41 (7/17) (2830,3236)1,2265770−13
    Diabetes education: intervention is aimed at patient’s diabetes knowledge for specific diabetes management topics41 (7/17) (21,25,28,3234,36)1,0544380−37
    Use of treatment algorithms: use of a predefined treatment algorithm or clinical guidelines (e.g. cholesterol, diabetes)35 (6/17) (2023,25,31)1,935835429
    Didactic teaching: education provided was delivered mainly by lectures29 (5/17) (28,29,33,34,36)6604075−35
    Behavioral: focuses on behavior-related tasks (e.g. exercise, diet) using behavior-based interventions29 (5/17) (27,29,30,33,35)7291005050
    Feedback: intervention provides specific feedback to patients on their diabetes control or performance29 (5/17) (20,25,27,29,33)950805822
    Interactive/discussion: education provided was delivered mainly by an interactive format23.5 (4/17) (29,33,34,36)5405069−19*
    Self-management education: comprehensive education that focuses on developing diabetes knowledge and patients’ ability to self-manage their diabetes18 (3/17) (22,29,30)7691005743*
    Problem solving: development of patient’s problem-solving skills required to manage their diabetes18 (3/17) (29,32,33)5961005743*
    Family support: intervention encourages family members to get involved in attending the session12 (2/17) (27,29)3791006040*
Intensity of the intervention
    Long duration: intervention is delivered over ≥6 months82 (14/17) (2023,25,2733,35,36)3,18479079
    High intensity: the patient is in direct contact with the intervention >10 times47 (8/17) (20,21,2931,3335)1,462874443
  • *

    * Rate difference should be interpreted carefully due to low number of studies examined.