Table 1—

Characteristics of study populations

TRIAD study population
Cross-sectional analysis
Longitudinal analysis
Patients with a survey and chart review data at baseline, no missing dataPatients not using ACE/ARB therapy at baseline and no known DKDPatients using ACE/ARB therapy at baseline or with known DKDPatients not using ACE/ARB therapy at baseline with follow-up data
n5,3781,7383,6401,301
Age (years)61.6 ± 12.660.3 ± 13.562.3 ± 12.159.5 ± 13.1
Sex (male)2,461 (45.8)772 (44.4)1,689 (46.4)618 (47.5)
Race/ethnicity
    White/non-Hispanic2,381 (44.3)826 (47.5)1,555 (42.7)639 (49.1)
    American Indian/Alaskan186 (3.5)73 (4.1)113 (3.1)55 (4.2)
    Asian/Pacific Islander852 (15.8)232 (13.4)620 (17.0)214 (16.5)
    Black753 (14.0)209 (12.0)544 (15.0)144 (11.1)
    Hispanic876 (16.3)326 (18.8)550 (15.1)184 (14.1)
    Other330 (6.1)72 (4.1)258 (7.1)65 (5.0)
BMI (kg/m2)31.2 ± 7.230.4 ± 6.931.5 ± 7.330.4 ± 7.0
Diabetes duration (years)9.6 (4.8–16.8)8.3 (4.1–14.7)10.2 (5.2–17.7)8.3 (4.0–15.2)
Treatment
    Oral ± insulin3,996 (74.3)1,279 (73.6)2,717 (74.6)934 (71.8)
    Insulin1,004 (18.7)309 (17.8)695 (19.1)243 (18.7)
    Diet only378 (7.0)150 (8.6)228 (6.3)124 (9.5)
Visits7.4 ± 4.96.7 ± 4.77.8 ± 5.06.4 ± 4.5
A1C (%)7.6 ± 1.87.7 ± 1.97.6 ± 1.87.7 ± 1.8
SBP (mmHg)136.0 ± 18.8133 ± 16.9137.7 ± 19.4132.7 ± 17.3
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.9 (0.7–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.9 (0.8–1.1)
Diabetic retinopathy1,038 (19.3)223 (12.8)815 (22.4)206 (15.8)
Peripheral neuropathy1,033 (19.2)242 (13.9)791 (21.7)218 (16.8)
Hypertension3,980 (74.0)809 (46.6)3,171 (87.1)655 (50.4)
Hyperlipidemia3,046 (56.6)820 (47.2)2,226 (61.2)655 (50.4)
Smoking1,582 (29.4)450 (25.9)1,132 (31.1)377 (29.0)
CVD1,832 (34.1)429 (24.7)1,403 (38.5)316 (24.3)
Microalbuminuria or nephropathy1,329 (24.7)1,329 (36.5)178 (13.7)
Screened3,190 (59.3)891 (51.3)2,299 (63.2)762 (58.6)
Physician type
    Endocrinology299 (5.6)89 (5.1)210 (5.8)77 (5.9)
    Family medicine2,707 (50.3)916 (52.7)1,791 (49.2)602 (46.3)
    Other/unknown211 (3.9)59 (3.4)152 (4.2)48 (3.7)
    Internal medicine2,161 (40.2)674 (38.8)1,487 (40.9)574 (44.1)
ACE/ARB use3,356 (62.4)3,356 (92.2)
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%).