Table 2

Mortality rate and risk for all-cause mortality (HR [95% CI]) according to categories of glycemic status

Prediabetes
Normoglycemia HbA1c <5.7% (<39 mmol/mol)High diabetes risk HbA1c 5.7–5.9% (39–41 mmol/mol)Very high diabetes risk HbA1c 6.0–6.4% (42–46 mmol/mol)Undiagnosed diabetes HbA1c ≥6.5% (≥48 mmol/mol)Known diabetes
Deaths, n (%)195 (4.9)105 (9.9)89 (12.9)72 (30.3)91 (29.1)
Follow-up (PY)47,456.412,191.57,888.12,445.53,317.4
Mortality rate (per 1,000 PY)4.18.611.329.427.4
Model 11.001.04 (0.82–1.32)0.95 (0.73–1.22)1.87 (1.41–2.47)1.66 (1.29–2.16)
Model 21.000.98 (0.77–1.25)0.85 (0.66–1.11)1.67 (1.26–2.22)1.49 (1.15–1.94)
Model 31.001.02 (0.80–1.30)0.87 (0.67–1.13)1.63 (1.23–2.17)1.41 (1.08–1.84)
  • PY, person-years. Model 1: Adjusted for age at baseline (years) and sex. Model 2: Further adjusted for educational level (low, medium, high), smoking status at baseline (never, former, current), sport activity (<2 vs. ≥2 h/week), moderate alcohol consumption (men: >0 and ≤20 g/day, women: >0 and ≤10 g/day), BMI (kg/m2), and waist circumference (cm). Model 3: Further adjusted for history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer at baseline (yes, no), and history of hypertension or hyperlipidemia at baseline (yes, no).