Table 1—

Baseline demographic and clinical variables

Vegan groupADA groupP value
n4950
Age (years)56.7 (35–82)54.6 (27–80)0.29
Sex0.26
    Male22 (45)17 (34)
    Female27 (55)33 (66)
Race, ethnicity0.71*
    Black, non-Hispanic22 (45)22 (44)
    White, non-Hispanic21 (43)22 (44)
    White, Hispanic4 (8)2 (4)
    Asian, non-Hispanic2 (4)4 (8)
Marital status0.08
    Not married20 (41)26 (52)
    Married29 (59)24 (48)
Education0.69
    High school, partial or graduate6 (12)3 (6)
    College, partial or graduate26 (53)25 (50)
    Graduate degree17 (35)22 (44)
Occupation0.04
    Service occupation3 (6)7 (14)
    Technical, sales, administrative16 (33)18 (36)
    Professional or managerial15 (31)21 (42)
    Retired15 (31)4 (8)
On insulin11 (22)5 (10)0.09
On metformin34 (69)39 (78)0.33
On sulfonylurea25 (51)29 (58)0.49
On thiazolidinedione16 (33)15 (30)0.78
On other diabetes medications1 (2)2 (4)0.57
On blood pressure medications31 (63)38 (76)0.17
On lipid-lowering medications27 (55)27 (54)0.88
History of eye involvement9 (18)10 (20)0.82
History of renal involvement6 (12)4 (8)0.48
History of neuropathy18 (37)24 (48)0.25
Mean BMI (kg/m2)33.935.90.18
    <25 kg/m25 (10)2 (4)
    25–29.9 kg/m214 (29)5 (10)
    ≥30 kg/m230 (61)43 (86)
  • Data are mean (range) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. P values refer to t test for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables.

  • *

    * P value calculated for race distribution; for ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), P = 0.39.