Table 2—

Clinical characteristics by night-eating symptom status

All patientsNight-eating symptomsNo night-eating symptomsTest statistics (χ2)
n71468 (9.7)645 (90.3)
Type 2 diabetes303 (42.4)33 (47.8)270 (41.9)0.34
Smoking status74 (10.6)11 (16.4)63 (10.0)2.62
Use of insulin595 (84.5)58 (85.3)537 (84.4)0.04
Use of oral hypoglycemic medications217 (30.8)16 (23.5)201 (31.6)1.88
Medical comorbidity (mean number of medical conditions)2.0 (2.0)2.3 (2.4)1.9 (1.9)1.64
Diabetes complications
    Retinopathy227 (32.4)28 (41.2)199 (31.5)2.63
    Neuropathy235 (33.8)31 (45.6)204 (32.5)4.71*
    Nephropathy117 (16.9)15 (22.1)102 (16.3)1.44
    CVD89 (12.7)9 (13.2)80 (12.7)0.02
    PVD65 (9.3)8 (11.8)57 (9.0)0.54
Treatment adherence
    Diet5.0 (1.8)4.0 (1.9)5.1 (1.7)4.91
    Exercise2.9 (2.1)2.3 (1.9)3.0 (2.1)2.61§
    Glucose monitoring5.9 (1.8)5.1 (2.3)6.0 (1.7)4.39
    Foot care2.6 (2.2)2.9 (2.3)2.6 (2.2)0.87
Diabetes duration (years)16.3 ± 12.115.1 ± 13.416.4 ± 12.00.83
Sleep disturbance more than half days in past 2 weeks221 (31.7)35 (52.2)186 (29.5)14.5
Total number diabetes symptoms (of eight)1.7 ± 1.72.6 ± 2.11.6 ± 1.64.64
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons within category;

  • P < 0.001;

  • §

    § P < 0.01;

  • F(2,711). CVD, cardiovascular disease; PVD, peripheral vascular disease.