Table 2—

Univariate and multivariate association of weight loss, behavioral, and metabolic variables on lower diabetes incidence in participants in the ILS group: DPP, 1996–2001

Variables (unit change)ModelModels assessing one characteristic at a time*
R2 (%)§Multivariate model
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PR2 (%)§
Baseline variables
    Lower weight (10 kg)10.81 (0.75–0.86)<0.00013.460.88 (0.81–0.96)0.0030.82
Higher leisure physical activity (MAQ)(5 MET hours/week)21.00 (0.96–1.05)0.890.001.00 (0.96–1.04)0.980.00
    Higher recreational activity (LoPAR)(20 MET hours/week)31.12 (1.01–1.23)0.030.421.08 (0.97–1.20)0.160.19
    Lower percent of calories from fat (5%)40.96 (0.84–1.10)0.570.030.91 (0.79–1.05)0.190.16
Follow-up variables
    Weight loss (5 kg)10.49 (0.43–0.57)<0.00017.550.42 (0.35–0.50)<0.00018.09
    Higher leisure physical activity (MAQ)(5 MET hours/week)20.95 (0.88–1.02) (0.90–1.05)0.500.04
    Higher recreational activity (LoPAR)(5 MET hours/week)30.99 (0.97–1.02)0.660.010.99 (0.96–1.02)0.450.05
    Lower percent of calories from fat (5%)40.75 (0.63–0.88)0.00071.060.93 (0.77–1.12)0.420.06
  • *

    * Baseline proportional hazards models (1–4) include baseline and follow-up (time-dependent) variables for each characteristic and are also adjusted for baseline demographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnic group, and weight). Separate models are shown with numbers.

  • Multivariate proportional hazards model includes all baseline and follow-up (time-dependent) variables shown, as well as age, sex, ethnic group, HbA1c, and baseline fasting measures of insulin, glucose, and IGR.

  • HRs for specified unit differences: <1 indicates less diabetes at follow-up; >1 indicates more diabetes.

  • §

    § Partial R2 indicates the proportion of explained variance in predicting the development of diabetes at a specified time point. LoPAR, Low Level Physical Activity Recall questionnaire; MAQ, Modifiable Activity Questionnaire.