Table 1—

Characteristics of participants

n8,733*
Female (%)54
Race/ethnicity (%)
    Hispanic16
    Black non-Hispanic17
    White non-Hispanic42
    Asian or Pacific Islander16
    Other9
Education (%)
    Less than a high school level24
    High school graduate29
    Greater than a high school level47
Annual income (%)
    <$15,00032
    $15,000 to $39,99931
    $40,000 to $74,99923
    >$75,00015
Age (years)60.8 ± 12.9
Duration of diabetes (years)12.4 ± 11.0
Charlson index2.3 ± 1.6
BMI (kg/m2)31.1 ± 7.3
Diabetes treatment (%)
    Insulin only19
    Insulin and oral medications12
    Oral medications only61
    No medications8
  • Data are percent or means ± SD.

  • *

    * Excludes participants without baseline chart data (3,107) or missing exposures (3,107 missing all exposures, plus 87 additional participants missing only influenza vaccination).

  • Higher score indicates a greater level of comorbidity.