Table 1—

Characteristic of the sample

MenWomen
n1,3081,541
Age (years)47.2 ± 14.646.8 ± 14.4
Hemoglobin (g/dl)14.3 ± 1.712.7 ± 1.5
Anemia (%)*18.331.5
Serum ferritin (μg/l)131.9 ± 90.171.1 ± 71.5
    First quartile42.2 ± 16.6 (3.7)12.7 ± 5.8 (0.21)
    Second quartile89.1 ± 12.8 (66.7)33.8 ± 7.2 (22.3)
    Third quartile140.3 ± 18.3 (111.1)68.6 ± 13.8 (47.3)
    Fourth quartile257.4 ± 77.7 (175.6)170.2 ± 74.8 (95.6)
Iron intake (mg/day)28.2 ± 12.023.4 ± 9.5
BMI (kg/m2)23.4 ± 3.223.6 ± 3.7
Central obesity (%)19.538.2
High blood pressure (%)30.524.5
Smoking
    Never (%)42.997.3
    1–19 cigarettes/day (%)27.82.1
    ≥20 cigarettes/day (%)29.30.5
Drinking
    0 times/week (%)50.794.2
    1–2 times/week (%)14.32.3
    3–4 times/week (%)8.71.2
    Daily (%)26.32.2
FPG categories (mmol/l)
    <5.6 (%)90.491.0
    5.6–6.0 (%)3.44.0
    6.1–7.0 (%)3.22.5
    >7 (%)3.02.6
Urban dwellers (%)25.224.7
Manual jobs (%)54.150.4
Education
    Low (%)36.057.5
    Medium (%)43.530.1
    High (%)20.512.4
  • Data are means ± SD or means ± SD (minimum) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Hemoglobin level <13 g/dl for men and <12 g/dl for women.

  • Defined as waist circumference: men ≥90 cm, women ≥80 cm.