Table 4—

OR (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes according to quartiles of iron daily intake in Chinese adults (n = 2,849)

Iron intake quartiles
P for trend
Quartile 1 (low)Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4 (high)
Men
    Model 1*10.74 (0.27–2.00)0.85 (0.30–2.41)1.76 (0.57–5.37)0.329
    Model 210.80 (0.24–2.16)0.95 (0.34–2.71)1.85 (0.60–5.74)0.284
    Model 310.67 (0.24–1.87)0.92 (0.32–2.67)1.82 (0.57–5.82)0.310
    Model 4§10.61 (0.22–1.74)0.84 (0.28–2.49)1.48 (0.44–5.00)0.530
    Model 510.58 (0.20–1.69)0.88 (0.29–2.65)1.54 (0.44–5.37)0.494
    Model 610.55 (0.19–1.63)0.88 (0.29–2.66)1.50 (0.43–5.21)0.524
    Model 7#10.61 (0.21–1.76)0.82 (0.26–2.55)1.73 (0.50–6.01)0.392
Women
    Model 1*12.29 (0.93–5.68)2.91 (1.02–8.27)4.75 (1.47–15.40)0.009
    Model 212.86 (1.13–7.22)3.69 (1.26–10.82)5.33 (1.62–17.56)0.006
    Model 312.72 (1.07–6.92)4.09 (1.37–12.24)5.67 (1.67–19.18)0.005
    Model 4§12.70 (1.01–7.19)3.84 (1.22–12.02)5.31 (1.47–19.26)0.011
    Model 512.66 (0.99–7.12)3.41 (1.07–10.91)5.53 (1.47–20.44)0.012
    Model 612.65 (0.98–7.13)3.65 (1.13–11.79)5.40 (1.43–20.44)0.013
    Model 7#12.59 (0.93–7.23)3.59 (1.08–11.96)5.91 (1.49–23.41)0.012
Both sexes
    Model 8**11.42 (0.69–2.93)2.17 (0.96–4.91)3.73 (1.50–9.26)0.004
  • *

    * Adjusted for energy, protein, and fat intake.

  • Adjusted for energy, protein, fat intake, and age.

  • Adjusted for energy, fat intake, protein, age, BMI (continuous), and central obesity (waist circumference: men ≥90 cm, women ≥80 cm).

  • §

    § Adjusted for variables in model 3 and smoking (never, past, and current smoking of 1–19 or ≥20 cigarettes/day), drinking (0 times/week, 1–2 times/week, 3–4 times/week, or daily), family history of diabetes in any of three generations (siblings, parents, or grandparents), and high blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs).

  • Adjusted for variables in model 4 and residence (urban/rural), income (low/medium/high), job (manual/not manual), and education (primary, junior middle school, high middle school/university).

  • Adjusted for variables in model 5 and high hemoglobin (fourth quartile).

  • #

    # Adjusted for variables in model 5 and high serum ferritin (fourth quartile).

  • **

    ** Adjusted for variables in model 5 and high hemoglobin (fourth quartile) and serum ferritin (fourth quartile) and sex. In this model, sex was not associated with diabetes.