Table 1—

Maternal, birth, and adult characteristics according to timing of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine

Born before famineExposed to famine in late gestationExposed to famine in mid-gestationExposed to famine in early gestationConceived after famineAlln
    Proportion of men0.470.560.500.440.520.5094
    Age (years)595858585758 ± 194
Maternal characteristics
    Proportion of primiparous women0.320.220.390.500.220.3494
    Weight gain third trimester (kg)1.9−0.1*4.55.8*3.12.8 ± 3.263
    Weight at last antenatal visit (kg)68.865.464.0*70.069.567.7 ± 7.684
Birth outcomes
    Gestational age (days)284285285291289286 ± 1082
    Birth weight (g)3,3113,3613,155*3,4973,6983,413 ± 45894
    Ponderal index (kg/m3)26.227.925.825.627.226.6 ± 2.592
Adult characteristics
    BMI (kg/m2)27.427. ± 1.194
    Current smoking0222228151793
    Current socioeconomic status (ISEI)48534740*4947 ± 192
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) compared with people unexposed to famine in utero.

  • Geometric means ± SD. ISEI, International Socio-Economic Index.