Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by diabetes and hyperglycemic status

CharacteristicDiabetesIFG/IGTNGTP
n (%)650 (24.2)787 (29.3)1,246 (46.4)
Sociodemographic
    Age (years)73.7 ± 2.873.7 ± 2.973.5 ± 2.9NS
    Male sex (%)55.146.348.1*
    Blacks (%)52.23736.4*
    Education <12 years32.322.623.4*
Health status (%)
    Hypertension68.459.051.4*
    Coronary heart disease27.720.017.7*
    Cerebrovascular disease107.67.4*
    Peripheral arterial disease20.513.411.9*
    Renal insufficiency11.47.47.0*
    Arthritis13.319.817.3*
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138.8 ± 21.5136.5 ± 21.3134.0 ± 20.8*
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)70.5 ± 11.772.4 ± 11.571.3 ± 11.6
Ankle arm index (AAI)
    Lowest AAI1.03 ± 0.191.07 ± 0.191.08 ± 0.18*
Smoking status
    Never41.844.745.3
    Current8.89.211.3
    Former49.446.143.4*
    Pack-years of cigarettes5 (0–32)4 (0–32)3 (0–27)*
Alcohol intake
    060.546.447.2
    ≤1 drink/day33.74546.2
    >1 drink/day5.98.66.6*
Medications (%)
    Anti-inflammatory drugs53.454.052.9NS
    Estrogen8.511.312.4*
    Statins14.815.410.4*
Blood glucose
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl)141.8 ± 51.599.2 ± 9.988.6 ± 6.3*
    2-h glucose test (mg/dl)233 (n = 263) (209–282)150 (133–168)104 (90–120)*
    A1C (%)7.6 ± 1.56.1 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.5*
Body composition
    Weight (kg)80.6 ± 14.876.4 ± 14.973.2 ± 14.3*
    BMI (kg/m2)28.9 ± 4.827.9 ± 4.926.4 ± 4.4*
    Total fat (kg) (DXA)27.5 ± 8.827.1 ± 8.824.4 ± 8.0*
    Visceral fat (cm2)167.2 ± 72.6152.4 ± 64.7127 ± 60.4*
  • Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise noted.

  • *

    * P < 0.05, comparison between diabetic and NGT population.

  • P < 0.05, comparison between IFG/IGT and NGT population.

  • Wilcoxon rank-sum test. DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.