Table 3—

Multivariate analyses for the association of hyperglycemia and diabetes with inflammation

Risk of high inflammation level associated with diabetes and hyperglycemic status
nModel 1Model 2Model 3
Diabetes
    High IL-64581.95 (1.56–2.44)1.69 (1.33–2.13)1.59 (1.25–2.03)
    High TNF-α4781.88 (1.51–2.35)1.6 (1.26–2.02)1.51 (1.19–1.93)
    High CRP
        Men1861.45 (1.03–2.04)1.17 (0.82–1.68)1.10 (0.76–1.61)
        Women2872.90 (2.13–3.95)2.25 (1.60–3.16)2.21 (1.54–3.17)
    Inflammation index
        ≥2 high3884.41 (3.16–6.16)2.85 (2.01–4.05)2.58 (1.79–3.72)
        Intermediate1,1251.99 (1.49–2.65)1.50 (1.11–2.03)1.40 (1.03–1.91)
        Low383111
IFG/IGT
    High IL-64561.51 (1.21–1.87)1.38 (1.11–1.73)1.37 (1.09–1.72)
    High TNF-α4571.14 (0.92–1.42)1.09 (0.88–1.36)1.07 (0.85–1.34)
    High CRP4461.33 (1.07–1.66)1.13 (0.89–1.42)1.10 (0.87–1.39)
    Inflammation index
        ≥2 high3491.66 (1.24–2.22)1.28 (0.95–1.74)1.26 (0.92–1.72)
        Intermediate1,2191.20 (0.96–1.51)0.98 (0.78–1.25)1.00 (0.78–1.27)
        Low465111
Relationship between glycemic control (A1C) and inflammation in diabetes
Model 1Model 2Model 3
High CRP1.17 (1.04–1.32)1.16 (1.03–1.32)1.15 (1.01–1.32)
High IL-61.12 (1.00–1.26)1.11 (0.99–1.25)1.07 (0.94–1.23)
High TNF-α1.13 (1.01–1.27)1.11 (0.98–1.25)1.10 (0.97–1.26)
  • Data are OR of high levels of inflammatory marker (95% CI). For risk of high inflammation level associated with diabetes and hyperglycemic status, model 1 is adjusted on age, sex, race, smoking status, alcohol intake, education, and site. Model 2 adds total body fat, visceral fat, and height. Model 3 adds cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, renal insufficiency, arthritis, pulmonary disease, anti-inflammatory, statin, and estrogen use. For relationship between glycemic control and inflammation in diabetes, models 1 and 2 are the same and model 3 adds diabetes duration.