Table 2

Birth outcomes by mild GDM treatment group, overall and by sex

OverallMaleFemale
OutcomeTreated
(n = 264)Untreated
(n = 236)P valueTreated
(n = 140)Untreated
(n = 121)P valueTreated
(n = 124)Untreated
(n = 115)P value
Gestational age at delivery (weeks)38.9 ± 1.839.0 ± 1.70.3038.8 ± 1.939.2 ± 1.70.0239.1 ± 1.638.9 ± 1.70.33
Birth weight (g)3,283.2 ± 491.43,468.3 ± 546.4<0.0013,285.5 ± 507.23,557.6 ± 532.5<0.0013,280.6 ± 475.03,375.0 ± 547.50.08
Macrosomia (>4,000 g)12 (4.6)32 (13.6)<0.0017 (5.0)21 (17.5)0.0015 (4.0)11 (9.6)0.09
Fat mass (g)421.3 ± 173.3482.9 ± 210.2<0.001407.3 ± 152.7502.0 ± 213.8<0.001437.1 ± 193.3463.3 ± 205.60.16
Fat mass >90th percentile9 (3.8)36 (16.7)<0.0011 (0.8)20 (18.4)<0.0018 (7.2)16 (15.1)0.06
Cord C-peptide (units)1.2 ± 0.91.4 ± 1.50.061.1 ± 0.71.4 ± 1.80.061.3 ± 1.01.3 ± 1.00.48
Cord C-peptide >95th percentile35 (14.8)48 (22.4)0.0415 (12.0)25 (22.3)0.0320 (17.9)23 (22.6)0.39
Size for gestational age0.0030.0030.35
 Small16 (6.1)9 (3.8)10 (7.1)4 (3.3)6 (4.8)5 (4.4)
 Appropriate231 (87.5)189 (80.4)123 (87.9)95 (79.2)108 (87.1)94 (81.7)
 Large17 (6.4)37 (15.7)7 (5.0)21 (17.5)10 (8.1)16 (13.9)
  • Data are mean ± SD and n (%).

  • Based on the χ2 or Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables.