Table 3

Follow-up outcomes (binomial) by mild GDM treatment group, overall and by sex

OutcomeOverallMaleFemale
TreatedUntreatedAdjusted RR (95% CI)*TreatedUntreatedAdjusted RR (95% CI)*TreatedUntreatedAdjusted RR (95% CI)*
BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex55 (20.8)54 (22.9)0.94 (0.68–1.28)35 (25.0)30 (24.8)1.04 (0.70–1.55)20 (16.1)24 (20.9)0.79 (0.48–1.33)
BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex86 (32.6)91 (38.6)0.88 (0.71–1.10)49 (35.0)46 (38.0)0.94 (0.70–1.27)37 (29.8)45 (39.1)0.81 (0.59–1.13)
Waist circumference >90th percentile for age, sex, and race/ethnicity31 (11.7)27 (11.4)1.05 (0.65–1.69)18 (12.9)15 (12.4)1.06 (0.56–2.00)13 (10.5)12 (10.4)1.02 (0.49–2.13)
Impaired fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL12 (5.7)13 (7.2)0.76 (0.36–1.62)9 (8.4)2 (2.2)3.50 (0.78–15.7)3 (2.9)11 (12.1)0.24 (0.07–0.82)
Elevated triglycerides ≥100 mg/dL 4–9 years; ≥130 mg/dL 10 years38 (18.2)29 (16.0)1.11 (0.71–1.72)18 (16.8)11 (12.2)1.31 (0.66–2.62)20 (19.6)18 (19.8)0.99 (0.56–1.75)
Low HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL27 (13.0)22 (12.2)1.03 (0.61–1.76)13 (12.2)8 (8.9)1.31 (0.57–3.00)14 (13.9)14 (15.4)0.88 (0.45–1.73)
Hypertension ≥95th percentile or age, sex, and height30 (11.5)23 (9.8)1.23 (0.74–2.05)20 (14.7)13 (10.7)1.41 (0.74–2.71)10 (8.1)10 (8.7)0.97 (0.42–2.23)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. RR, relative risk.

  • * All models adjusted for race/ethnicity and log maternal baseline BMI, except waist circumference >90th percentile for age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted only for log maternal baseline BMI. The data presented by child sex are based on multivariable adjusted models that included treatment group, sex, and a treatment group-by-sex interaction term.

  • P = 0.007 for interaction between treatment group and sex.

  • P = 0.02.