Table 4

Follow-up outcomes (continuous) by mild GDM treatment group, overall and by sex

Adjusted mean (95% CI)
Overall MaleFemale
OutcomeTreatedUntreatedTreatedUntreatedTreatedUntreated
BMI z score based on BMI percentile for age and sex0.33 (0.15–0.51)0.36 (0.17–0.55)0.36 (0.12–0.60)0.34 (0.09–0.60)0.30 (0.05–0.56)0.37 (0.10–0.64)
Waist circumference (cm)*57.28 (56.30–58.27)57.56 (56.54–58.60)57.69 (56.40–59.02)58.02 (56.65–59.43)56.87 (55.52–58.26)57.10 (55.68–58.57)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)88.41 (87.33–89.50)88.67 (87.56–89.78)89.64 (88.25–91.04)87.71 (86.25–89.18)87.11 (85.65–88.57)89.62 (88.12–91.12)
HOMA-IR*§||1.05 (0.94–1.17)1.10 (0.99–1.24)1.06 (0.92–1.22)0.95 (0.81–1.10)1.05 (0.90–1.22)1.30 (1.11–1.52)
Triglycerides (mg/dL)*58.91 (54.82–63.30)57.38 (53.33–61.73)57.99 (52.83–63.67)54.85 (49.73–60.51)60.15 (54.57–66.31)60.20 (54.45–66.56)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)54.35 (52.42–56.28)55.10 (53.16–57.05)55.06 (52.60–57.53)56.65 (54.05–59.26)53.42 (50.81–56.04)53.43 (50.77–56.09)
Systolic BP (mmHg)100 (98–101)100 (98–101)101 (99–103)100 (98–102)99 (97–101)99 (97–101)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)60 (59–61)59 (58–60)60 (59–62)60 (59–62)61 (59–62)58 (57–60)
  • All models adjusted for race/ethnicity and log maternal baseline BMI; log waist circumference also adjusted for child’s sex (overall model) and child’s age in months; log triglycerides also adjusted for child’s age in months; and systolic and diastolic BPs also adjusted for child’s sex (overall model), child’s age in months, and child’s height. The data presented by child sex are based on multivariable adjusted models that included treatment group, sex, and a treatment group-by-sex interaction term. BP, blood pressure.

  • *Back transformation of the log value.

  • P = 0.002 for interaction between treatment group and sex.

  • P = 0.01.

  • §Calculated as (fasting glucose [mmol/L] × fasting insulin [μU/mL]) / 22.5 (20).

  • ||P = 0.02 for interaction between treatment group and sex.

  • P = 0.04.