Table 1—

Participant characteristics by racial and ethnic group

Clinical characteristicAllWhiteBlackHispanicAmerican IndianAsianP
n3,8192,117752609174167
Age (years)50.7 ± 10.651.9 ± 10.650.5 ± 10.1*48.4 ± 10.144.5 ± 9.849.8 ± 10.1*<0.001
Sex (female)2,576 (67.5)1,387 (65.5)559 (74.3)408 (67.0)153 (87.9)69 (41.3)<0.001
Marital status (married/living together)2,493 (65.3)1,471 (69.5)353 (46.9)421 (69.1)113 (64.9)135 (80.8)<0.001
Education (years)
    13–161,821 (47.7)1,048 (49.5)335 (44.6)260 (42.7)92 (52.9)86 (51.5)<0.001
    ≥171,018 (26.7)667 (31.5)204 (27.1)71 (11.7)18 (10.3)58 (34.7)<0.001
Blood pressure (mmHg)
    Systolic123.9 ± 14.6123.8 ± 14.1127.0 ± 15.3122.2 ± 14.3*116.0 ± 12.4124.8 ± 16.3<0.001
    Diastolic78.4 ± 9.378.0 ± 9.179.8 ± 10.077.9 ± 8.775.3 ± 8.682.2 ± 9.7<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)33.9 ± 6.734.1 ± 6.835.2 ± 7.033.1 ± 5.733.6 ± 6.129.5 ± 5.3<0.001
    Men32.0 ± 5.632.4 ± 5.932.6 ± 5.831.4 ± 4.831.2 ± 4.028.5 ± 3.8<0.001
    Women34.9 ± 6.934.9 ± 7.136.2 ± 7.133.9 ± 5.9*33.9 ± 6.330.9 ± 6.5<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)
    Men107.7 ± 13.5110.2 ± 13.4106.9 ± 13.9104.5 ± 12.3107.0 ± 11.097.1 ± 9.6<0.001
    Women103.6 ± 14.9104.1 ± 14.8106.1 ± 16.3*99.6 ± 12.6105.2 ± 13.293.5 ± 14.0<0.001
Hematocrit (%)41.1 ± 3.541.4 ± 3.339.6 ± 3.441.2 ± 3.741.5 ± 3.542.9 ± 3.7<0.001
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    Fasting5.9 ± 0.55.9 ± 0.56.0 ± 0.55.9 ± 0.55.6 ± 0.56.0 ± 0.4<0.001
    30 min9.4 ± 1.49.5 ± 1.49.0 ± 1.29.6 ± 1.49.3 ± 1.39.8 ± 1.5<0.001
    120 min9.1 ± 1.09.2 ± 0.99.1 ± 1.09.1 ± 1.09.1 ± 1.09.3 ± 0.90.211
Glucose AUC8.9 ± 0.88.9 ± 0.88.7 ± 0.89.0 ± 0.98.8 ± 0.89.1 ± 0.9<0.001
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)184.5 ± 104.1177.8 ± 100.4189.7 ± 98.1198.0 ± 113.9207.2 ± 125.0173.4 ± 107.8<0.001
CIR0.6 ± 0.40.6 ± 0.40.7 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.50.9 ± 0.50.6 ± 0.4<0.001
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)7.0 ± 4.26.8 ± 4.07.3 ± 3.9*7.5 ± 4.67.4 ± 4.76.7 ± 4.3<0.001
A1C (%)5.91 ± 0.505.80 ± 0.446.19 ± 0.595.89 ± 0.465.96 ± 0.465.96 ± 0.45<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). Glucose AUC was calculated using the trapezoidal rule from 2-h OGTT values. We compared values for whites vs. those for other racial groups (significant P values [P for test of difference in means or percentages among the ethnic groups] are shown as

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.001, and

  • P < 0.01). Step-down Bonferroni method (ref. 15) was used to adjust for multiple comparisons.