Table 1—

Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical characteristics of children with NAFLD, subgrouped according to weight at birth, and of control subjects, matched for age and sex

VariablesControl subjectsNAFLDAGA NAFLDSGA NAFLD
n90905535
Age (years)11.3 ± 3.811.7 ± 3.211.3 ± 3.312.3 ± 3.0
Sex (male/female)63/2763/2737/1826/9
Birth weight (kg)3.38 ± 0.423.12 ± 0.66*3.57 ± 0.362.41 ± 0.29
Gestational age (weeks)39.3 ± 1.039.3 ± 1.139.1 ± 1.239.6 ± 0.7
BMI (kg/m2)19.7 ± 2.726.3 ± 3.626.5 ± 3.626.0 ± 3.5
BMI Z score1.14 ± 0.381.78 ± 0.721.82 ± 0.851.73 ± 0.43
Obesity6 (2–13)44 (34–54)44 (31–56)46 (29–60)
NGT/IFG-IGT/diabetes (%)99/1/084/9/789/9/278/19/3
Family history of diabetes
    First degree (%)NA8 (3–15)10 (4–20)3 (1–14)
    Second degree (%)NA21 (13–30)29 (18–41)9 (2–20)§
AST (IU/l)28 ± 748 ± 2549 ± 2647 ± 23
ALT (IU/l)28 ± 574 ± 6177 ± 6071 ± 63
gGT (IU/l)22 ± 626 ± 2126 ± 2226 ± 18
Cholesterol (mg/dl)138 ± 28154 ± 34*148 ± 34164 ± 34§
Triglycerides (mg/dl)79 ± 2295 ± 53*93 ± 3699 ± 73
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)81 ± 682 ± 1081 ± 985 ± 11§
Fasting insulin (μU/l)6.7 ± 2.311.4 ± 6.010.5 ± 5.113.5 ± 6.7
HOMA-IR1.34 ± 0.462.32 ± 1.251.99 ± 0.982.85 ± 1.46
ISINA4.42 ± 1.984.86 ± 1.873.73 ± 1.98
    HOMA-IR >2.611 (6–19)48 (37–54)38 (25–50)63 (45–76)§
    ISI <6.0NA73 (63–81)65 (51–76)86 (69–93)§
Liver histology
    NAS indexNA4.41 ± 2.064.29 ± 2.114.60 ± 1.99
    Fibrosis stageNA0.74 ± 0.730.73 ± 0.730.77 ± 0.73
  • Data are means ± SD and percent cases (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * P vs. control subjects <0.01;

  • P vs. NAFLD appropriate for gestational age (AGA) <0.01;

  • P vs. control subjects <0.001;

  • §

    § P vs. NAFLD AGA <0.05.

  • These cutoffs, representing the upper (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and lower (insulin sensitivity index derived from oral glucose load [ISI]) quartiles of a control population, respectively (ref. 20), identify subjects considered insulin resistant. ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; γGT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase.