Table 1—

Selected characteristics of Caucasian and African-American participants

CaucasiansAfrican AmericansP
n4,216665
OBD scores9.86 ± 6.0110.76 ± 6.20<0.0005
Age (years)38.08 ± 2.5038.32 ± 2.73<0.03
Education (years)13.33 ± 2.3513.01 ± 1.96<0.0007
Income (% >40,000 USD)23.0913.76<0.0001
Place of service (% Vietnam)60.7161.650.48
PTSD (%)7.057.630.09
BMI (kg/m2)26.91 ± 4.4926.73 ± 4.860.49
Cortisol (μg/dl)18.44 ± 5.5718.45 ± 6.020.49
Glucose concentrations (%)*
    Diabetes1.644.06<0.009
    Impaired16.8818.35
    Normal81.4877.59
  • Data are means ± SD or percent.

  • *

    * Participants were classified as having diabetes if they were taking medication for diabetes, were on a special diet for diabetes, or had fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl. The remaining participants were classified as being glucose impaired if their fasting glucose was <126 and ≥100 mg/dl or normal if their fasting glucose was <100 mg/dl.