Table 1—

Group characteristics of the diabetic patients and control subjects

VariablesType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesControl
n486943
Age (years)45 ± 1561 ± 13*53 ± 16
Creatinine (μmol/l)89 ± 1297 ± 1788 ± 8
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.65 ± 0.81.9 ± 0.81.3 ± 0.5
LDL (mmol/l)3.2 ± 0.73.2 ± 1.03.4 ± 1.1
HDL (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.51.0 ± 0.3*1.3 ± 0.3
BMI (kg/m2)22.8 ± 1.624.4 ± 1.2*24.1 ± 1.8
Duration diabetes (years)20 ± 1110 (5–20)*
Mean A1C (%)7.9 ± 1.08.2 ± 0.95.5 ± 0.5
Smoking11100
Caucasians (%)929591
Male:female (%)48:5265:3545:55
ACE inhibitor1521
Statins832*
Antioxidants935*
Hypertension1533*
Hemodialyis1014
Microalbuminuria1222*
CHD1331*
Autofluorescence (AU)0.016 ± 0.0050.021 ± 0.003*0.010 ± 0.001
  • Data are n, means ± SD, or median (25–75% range) unless otherwise indicated. ACE inhibitor, statins, and antioxidants describe the number of patients using these medications. Mean creatinine levels are levels in diabetic patients excluding those on dialysis treatment.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients;

  • P < 0.05 between diabetic patients and control subjects. AU, arbitrary units.