Table 1—

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of male and female participants, stratified by ALT quartiles, and relative risk (RR) of ALT quartiles in logistic regression models for incidence of diabetes

ALT quartiles (IU/l) in male subjects
ALT quartiles (IU/l) in female subjects
1st (<19.0)2nd (19.3–25.0)3rd (25.7–35.0)4th (>35.2)P1st (< 14.0)2nd (15.0–18.0)3rd (18.2–23.5)4th (>24.0)P
n1,0101,0251,0241,0161,1331,1391,2701,133
Age (years)53.2 ± 9.152.3 ± 9.050.9 ± 8.449.3 ± 7.8<0.0149.8 ± 8.851.7 ± 9.053.5 ± 9.053.3 ± 8.5<0.01
BMI (kg/m2)22.9 ± 2.723.8 ± 2.624.6 ± 2.825.2 ± 3.0<0.0123.7 ± 2.924.4 ± 3.024.9 ± 3.225.9 ± 3.4<0.01
Waist-to-hip ratio87.6 ± 6.289.0 ± 5.889.8 ± 5.990.8 ± 5.5<0.0184.4 ± 8.786.3 ± 8.387.9 ± 8.288.4 ± 8.4<0.01
Waist (cm)79.9 ± 7.382.6 ± 7.284.6 ± 7.386.2 ± 7.2<0.0177.9 ± 9.180.2 ± 9.182.3 ± 9.384.2 ± 9.6<0.01
Body fat (%)19.3 ± 5.120.8 ± 5.022.1 ± 4.923.1 ± 4.9<0.0129.6 ± 5.330.9 ± 5.431.8 ± 5.333.2 ± 5.2<0.01
hsCRP (mg/l)0.21 ± 0.270.21 ± 0.290.22 ± 0.300.23 ± 0.280.0830.17 ± 0.240.18 ± 0.250.19 ± 0.240.23 ± 0.27<0.01
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.95.0 ± 0.95.0 ± 0.95.1 ± 1.0<0.014.8 ± 0.94.9 ± 0.95.0 ± 0.95.2 ± 1.0<0.01
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.81.7 ± 1.02.0 ± 1.22.5 ± 1.6<0.011.3 ± 0.71.5 ± 0.71.6 ± 0.91.9 ± 1.1<0.01
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.3<0.011.3 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3<0.01
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.64.8 ± 0.64.9 ± 0.7<0.014.6 ± 0.54.6 ± 0.54.6 ± 0.54.7 ± 0.6<0.01
2-h glucose (mmol/l)6.0 ± 1.86.2 ± 1.86.4 ± 1.86.9 ± 1.9<0.016.6 ± 1.66.6 ± 1.66.8 ± 1.67.2 ± 1.8<0.01
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)44.4 ± 25.747.2 ± 38.950.0 ± 27.854.2 ± 29.2<0.0152.1 ± 26.454.2 ± 35.455.6 ± 38.260.4 ± 34.0<0.01
2-h insulin (pmol/l)137.5 ± 138.2149.3 ± 147.9172.9 ± 161.8222.9 ± 218.8<0.01190.3 ± 156.3206.3 ± 186.1220.9 ± 184.0268.8 ± 263.2<0.01
A1C (%)5.5 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.4<0.015.5 ± 0.45.5 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.45.7 ± 0.5<0.01
HOMA-β120.7 ± 138.3127.1 ± 140.5134.0 ± 116.6136.3 ± 174.70.063151.9 ± 144.7168.1 ± 149.8180.7 ± 175.7179.8 ± 162.0<0.01
HOMA-IR1.4 ± 0.81.5 ± 1.31.5 ± 0.91.7 ± 1.0<0.011.6 ± 0.81.6 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.21.8 ± 1.1<0.01
QUICKI0.74 ± 0.340.75 ± 0.340.75 ± 0.570.70 ± 0.340.0150.70 ± 0.330.71 ± 0.280.74 ± 0.920.69 ± 0.280.058
Drinker (%)66.970.071.072.7<0.0130.123.922.825.8NS
Alcohol intake (kg)6.42 ± 0.287.51 ± 0.357.73 ± 0.359.38 ± 0.40<0.011.82 ± 0.181.42 ± 0.131.45 ± 0.131.99 ± 0.26NS
Smoker (%)51.546.048.651.7NS3.03.93.83.9NS
Age and BMI adjusted1.000.98 (0.55–1.74)1.21 (0.68–2.14)2.67 (1.59–4.47)<0.0011.000.94 (0.45–1.97)1.50 (0.78–2.89)2.06 (1.06–3.90)0.034
Multivariate adjusted*1.000.90 (0.49–1.61)1.45 (0.81–2.45)2.20 (1.28–3.73)0.0041.000.98 (0.46–2.10)1.64 (0.85–3.18)1.97 (1.03–3.77)0.041
  • Data are means ± SD or RR (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Adjusted for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol and exercise status, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). NS, not significant.