Table 2

Baseline characteristics of current users of incretin-based drugs and oral antidiabetic drug combinations among matched control subjectsa

CharacteristicsCurrent use of incretin-based drugsCurrent use of oral antidiabetic combinations
Number of patients9234,198
Age (years), mean (SD)67.7 (8.9)69.6 (9.5)
Duration of treated diabetes (years), mean (SD)3.5 (3.3)2.7 (2.7)
Males, n (%)515 (55.8)2,441 (58.1)
Year of study cohort entry, n (%)
 2007263 (28.5)2,131 (50.8)
 2008200 (21.7)1,062 (25.3)
 2009255 (27.6)603 (14.4)
 2010133 (14.4)299 (7.1)
 201172 (7.8)100 (2.4)
Number of distinct prescriptions, n (%)b,c
 0–8380 (41.2)2,074 (49.4)
 9–16436 (47.2)1,745 (41.6)
 ≥17107 (11.6)379 (9.0)
Number of physician visits, n (%)b
 0–10245 (26.5)1,238 (29.5)
 11–20406 (44.0)1,878 (44.7)
 ≥21272 (29.5)1,082 (25.8)
Excessive alcohol use, n (%)b126 (13.7)502 (12.0)
Smoking status, n (%)b
 Ever580 (62.8)2,708 (64.5)
 NeverS1,472 (35.1)
 UnknownS18 (0.4)
BMI, n (%)d
 ≤24.9 kg/m284 (9.1)550 (13.1)
 25–29.9 kg/m2273 (29.6)1,617 (38.5)
 ≥30 kg/m2555 (60.1)1,954 (46.5)
 Unknown11 (1.2)77 (1.8)
HbA1c, n (%)d
 ≤7.0% [53 mmol/mol]85 (9.2)280 (6.7)
 7.1–8.0% [54–64 mmol/mol]269 (29.1)1,318 (31.4)
 >8.0% [64 mmol/mol]508 (55.0)2,240 (53.4)
 Unknown61 (6.6)360 (8.6)
Antidiabetic drugs, n (%)b
 InsulinsS5 (0.1)
 Metformin532 (57.6)2,182 (52.0)
 Sulfonylureas264 (28.6)939 (22.4)
 Thiazolidinediones158 (17.1)311 (7.4)
 OtherS23 (0.5)
 None319 (34.6)1,491 (35.5)
Other drugs, n (%)b
 ACE inhibitors429 (46.5)1,932 (46.0)
 Angiotensin receptor blockers178 (19.3)649 (15.5)
 β-Blockers259 (28.1)1,148 (27.3)
 Calcium channel blockers309 (33.5)1,337 (31.8)
 Diuretics342 (37.1)1,572 (37.4)
 Fibrates20 (2.2)84 (2.0)
 Statins703 (76.2)3,085 (73.5)
 Aspirin425 (46.0)1,971 (47.0)
 Other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs190 (20.6)767 (18.3)
Comorbidities, n (%)e
 Neuropathy203 (22.0)769 (18.3)
 Renal disease180 (19.5)826 (19.7)
 Retinopathy302 (32.7)1,335 (31.8)
 Atrial fibrillation58 (6.3)270 (6.4)
 Cancer141 (15.3)609 (14.5)
 COPD141 (15.3)537 (12.8)
 Coronary arterial disease248 (26.9)1,126 (26.8)
 Coronary revascularization63 (6.8)215 (5.1)
 Dyslipidemia337 (36.5)1,309 (31.2)
 Hypertension638 (69.1)2,796 (66.6)
 MI62 (6.7)277 (6.6)
 Peripheral arteriopathy78 (8.5)334 (8.0)
 Peripheral vascular disease76 (8.2)282 (6.7)
 Stroke53 (5.7)237 (5.6)
  • S, suppressed as at least one cell has a count <5.

  • a Case and control subjects were matched on the duration of follow-up, age, duration of treated diabetes, and calendar year of cohort entry.

  • b Measured in the year prior to study cohort entry.

  • c Number of prescriptions refers to the number of drug classes prescribed.

  • d Last measure prior to cohort entry.

  • e Comorbidities measured any time before study cohort entry.