Table 3

Crude and adjusted ORs of hospitalization for CHF, comparing incretin-based drugs to combinations of oral antidiabetic drugsa

Current exposurebCase subjects (n = 1,118)Control subjects (n = 17,626)Crude OR (95% CI)Adjusted ORc (95% CI)
≥2 oral antidiabetic drugs, n (%)267 (23.9)4,198 (23.8)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Incretin-based drugs, n (%)64 (5.7)923 (5.2)0.98 (0.73–1.33)0.85 (0.62–1.16)
 DPP-4 inhibitors54 (4.8)808 (4.6)0.96 (0.70–1.32)0.88 (0.63–1.22)
 GLP-1 analogs10 (0.9)115 (0.7)1.18 (0.59–2.39)0.67 (0.32–1.42)
Duration of incretin-based drug use,d n (%)
 1–83 days25 (2.2)310 (1.8)1.18 (0.74–1.89)1.01 (0.62–1.63)
 84–265 days18 (1.6)299 (1.7)0.86 (0.51–1.44)0.79 (0.46–1.36)
 >265 days21 (1.9)314 (1.8)0.92 (0.56–1.50)0.75 (0.45–1.25)
P trend = 0.39
  • a Case and control subjects were matched on the duration of follow-up, age, duration of treated diabetes, and calendar year of cohort entry.

  • b Current users of insulins, single oral antidiabetic drugs, and noncurrent users of antidiabetic drugs are not displayed in the table, but were considered in the regression model for proper estimation of treatment effects (representing 787 case subjects and 12,505 control subjects).

  • c Adjusted for sex, BMI, excessive alcohol use, smoking status, HbA1c level (≤7.0% [53 mmol/mol], 7.1–8.0% [54–64 mmol/mol], >8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), comorbidities (neuropathy, renal disease, retinopathy, atrial fibrillation, cancer [other than nonmelanoma skin cancer], COPD, CAD, dyslipidemia, hypertension, previous MI, peripheral arteriopathy, previous coronary revascularization, peripheral vascular disease, and previous stroke), number of prescriptions, number of physician visits, and use of the following drugs in the year prior to cohort entry: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, fibrates, statins, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  • d Duration categories based on tertiles.