Table 1—

Clinical and laboratory data

Groups12345Entire group
A1C (%)<6.56.5–6.97–7.98–8.9≥9
Patients tested (n)3017322526130
Age (years)58.7 ± 1.957.9 ± 1.759.6 ± 1.859.3 ± 2.261.4 ± 1.859.9 ± 0.8
M/F ratio28/215/225/718/714/12100/30
BMI (kg/m2)31.0 ± 1.129.8 ± 1.528.6 ± 0.726.3 ± 0.932.1 ± 1.029.6 ± 0.5
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)135 ± 3141 ± 5137 ± 3133 ± 4138 ± 3137 ± 2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)83 ± 282 ± 379 ± 277 ± 278 ± 380 ± 1
Diabetes duration (years)0.7 ± 0.34.4 ± 2.38.4 ± 1.410.0 ± 2.211.5 ± 1.77.0 ± 0.8
Dietary intakes
    Energy (kcal/day)2,252 ± 942,299 ± 1112,018 ± 712,041 ± 661,795 ± 802,069 ± 40
    Carbohydrates (g/day)263 ± 13273 ± 15235 ± 10242 ± 8205 ± 10242 ± 5
    Fats (g/day)88 ± 489 ± 478 ± 379 ± 369 ± 380 ± 2
    Proteins (g/day)103 ± 3101 ± 593 ± 390 ± 484 ± 394 ± 2
Glycemic index values
    Breakfast79 ± 078 ± 079 ± 079 ± 080 ± 179 ± 0
    Lunch73 ± 072 ± 174 ± 173 ± 175 ± 174 ± 0
    Dinner70 ± 071 ± 171 ± 171 ± 173 ± 171 ± 0
Timing of meals
    Breakfast7:48 ± 0:128:19 ± 0:268:00 ± 0:098:08 ± 0:118:17 ± 0:138:05 ± 0:06
    Lunch13:11 ± 0:1513:22 ± 0:1612:37 ± 0:0712:58 ± 0:0912:48 ± 0:0912:58 ± 0:05
    Dinner19:05 ± 0:1519:25 ± 0:1619:30 ± 0:1020:08 ± 0:1219:32 ± 0:0919:31 ± 0:06
Diabetes treatment
    Diet alone291164252
    Sulfonylurea alone012014
    Metformin alone004419
    Combination (sulfonylurea and metformin)1520172265
Other treatments
    Lipid-lowering drugs1871391461
    Antihypertensive drugs14798745
A1C (%)5.9 ± 0.16.8 ± 0.07.4 ± 0.18.4 ± 0.110.1 ± 0.27.7 ± 0.1
  • Data are means ± SE or n.