Table 1—

Characteristics of study population by central obesity/metabolic syndrome groups

CharacteristicsNo metabolic syndromeCentral obesity/metabolic syndromeNo central obesity/metabolic syndrome
n (%)3,200 (73.8)766 (17.7)368 (8.5)
Ethnic group*
    Chinese2,017 (79.2)309 (12.1)220 (8.6)
    Malays637 (70.1)206 (22.7)66 (7.3)
    Asian Indians546 (62.1)251 (28.6)82 (9.3)
Sex*
    Male1,505 (72.1)339 (16.2)243 (11.6)
    Female1,695 (75.4)427 (19.0)125 (5.6)
Age (years)36.8 ± 11.948.8 ± 12.047.9 ± 12.2
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.2 ± 1.05.9 ± 1.15.8 ± 1.1
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.4 ± 0.93.9 ± 1.03.8 ± 1.4
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.30.9 ± 0.2
Triglycerides1.01.92.2
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.3 ± 1.06.5 ± 2.46.9 ± 2.8
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)114.6 ± 15.2137.4 ± 21.9136.3 ± 20.3
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)67.6 ± 10.981.9 ± 11.980.9 ± 11.5
Waist circumference (cm)73.1 ± 9.492.6 ± 8.479.8 ± 6.6
BMI (kg/m2)22.1 ± 3.429.0 ± 3.823.8 ± 2.5
Diabetes81 ± 2.5195 ± 25.5102 ± 27.7
Current smoker*580 (18.1)119 (15.6)95 (25.8)
Alcohol intake*316 (9.9)69 (9.0)55 (14.9)
Study*
    NHS 922,684 (83.9)434 (56.7)291 (79.1)
    NUHHS516 (16.1)332 (43.3)77 (20.9)
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • *

    * Categorical variables; for ethnic group and sex, percentages are shown.

  • Continuous variables; for triglycerides, median values are shown. NHS 92, 1992 National Heart Study; NUHHS, National University of Singapore Heart Study.