Table 1—

Characteristics of women with and without GDM in the AHS, 1993–1997

CharacteristicsGDMNo GDMCrude OR (95% CI)
n50610,767
Maternal age at pregnancy
    16–2440 (8)1,478 (14)0.7 (0.5–0.9)
    25–29177 (35)4,294 (40)1.0
    30–34188 (37)3,577 (33)1.3 (1.0–1.6)
    35–49101 (20)1,418 (13)1.7 (1.3–2.2)
Race
    White477 (94)10,420 (97)1.0
    Other*29 (6)347 (3)1.8 (1.2–2.7)
Education
    Less than high school11 (2)244 (2)1.2 (0.6–2.3)
    High school149 (30)3,589 (33)1.0
    More than high school291 (57)5,895 (55)0.9 (0.5–1.7)
    Missing55 (11)1,039 (10)1.1 (0.6–2.0)
BMI at enrollment (kg/m2)
    <18.58 (2)193 (2)1.2 (0.6–2.4)
    18.5–24.9164 (32)4,620 (43)1.0
    25.0–29.9142 (28)2,698 (25)1.5 (1.2–1.9)
    ≥3097 (19)1,607 (15)1.7 (1.3–2.2)
    Missing95 (19)1,649 (15)1.6 (1.3–2.1)
Parity
    071 (14)1,243 (12)1.0
    1182 (37)4,187 (39)0.8 (0.6–1.0)
    2158 (31)3,232 (30)0.9 (0.6–1.1)
    3+95 (19)2,105 (19)0.8 (0.6–1.1)
Smoking in pregnancy
    Did not smoke449 (89)9,643 (90)1.0
    Smoked54 (11)1,081 (10)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
    Missing3 (<1)43 (<1)1.5 (0.5–4.9)
Ever mixed/applied pesticides
    No209 (43)4,462 (42)1.0
    Yes282 (57)6,163 (58)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
State of residence
    Iowa335 (66)8,079 (75)0.7 (0.5–0.8)
    North Carolina171 (34)2,688 (25)1.0
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Other includes 167 individuals for missing race.

  • Parity includes live births and stillbirths prior to the index pregnancy.

  • Total number varies due to 157 individuals missing.