Table 1—

Sample description

Total samplePatients with CESD scores ≥16Patients with CESD scores ≥22CIDI
n = 506n = 113n = 75n = 50
≥16<16≥22<22MDDNo MDD
Male/female subjects218 (43)/288 (57)41 (36)/72 (64)176 (45)/212 (55)25 (33)/50 (67)192 (45)/239 (55)20 (40)/30 (60)198 (43)/258 (57)
Age (years)57.83 ± 9.8655.38 ± 10.13*58.4 ± 9.755.53 ± 0.9658.1 ± 9.856.90 ± 9.1157.9 ± 9.9
Education (years)14.57 ± 3.3313.72 ± 3.62*14.8 ± 3.213.49 ± 3.71*14.8 ± 3.214.56 ± 3.6214.6 ± 3.3
Family income ($1,000)52.68 ± 36.3742.11 ± 38.28*55.4 ± 35.040.23 ± 39.93*54.6 ± 35.152.89 ± 40.9152.8 ± 35.9
BMI (kg/m2)32.73 ± 7.7433.80 ± 8.1132.5 ± 7.633.95 ± 8.5532.6 ± 7.635.52 ± 8.81*32.4 ± 7.6
Psychiatric medications105 (20.8)48 (42.7)*57 (14.8)35 (46.7)*70 (16.5)31 (62)*74 (16.3)
Comorbidities3.8 ± 2.54.9 ± 2.97*3.6 ± 2.35.3 ± 2.85*3.6 ± 2.45.6 ± 2.79*3.7 ± 2.4
Years with diabetes8.1 ± 7.58.7 ± 7.37.9 ± 7.68.0 ± 6.68.2 ± 7.78.4 ± 7.08.1 ± 7.6
Medication
    Diet/exercise84 (16.6)13 (11.6)72 (18.0)10 (13.0)75 (17.1)6 (12.0)77 (16.9)
    Oral346 (68.2)78 (68.8)267 (68.3)51 (67.0)294 (68.5)36 (72)311 (68.1)
    Insulin76 (15.0)22 (19.6)54 (13.7)14 (19.0)62 (14.8)8 (16)68 (15.0)
Ethnicity
    Asian American85 (16.8)15 (18.1)69 (81.9)7 (8.4)77 (91.6)3 (3.5)82 (96.5)
    African American104 (20.5)21 (20.6)82 (79.4)15 (14.7)88 (85.3)5 (4.9)98 (95.1)
    Hispanic98 (19.3)29 (29.3)71 (70.7)24 (24.2)76 (75.8)11 (11.1)88 (88.9)
    Non-Hispanic white185 (36.7)42 (22.7)144 (77.3)24 (13.0)162 (87.0)25 (13.4)161 (86.6)
    Other34 (6.7)6 (18.8)27 (81.3)5 (15.6)28 (84.4)6 (18.2)27 (81.8)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). Significance levels based on Student’s t test or χ2 test compared between those with and without a diagnosis on the designated scale.

  • *

    * P < 0.001;

  • P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01.