Table 1—

Anthropometrical and biochemical variables of the study subjects

NGTIGTType 2 diabetesP (ANOVA)
n (men)973688
Age (years)49.5 ± 11.4*57.8 ± 8.958.4 ± 10.2<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)26.9 ± 3.928.4 ± 3.328.9 ± 3.9<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.91 ± 0.060.95 ± 0.07§1 ± 0.08<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)123.7 ± 15.06132.9 ± 16.5142.2 ± 19.6<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78.9 ± 9.783.8 ± 8.782.4 ± 10.80.012
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.23 ± 0.55.67 ± 0.69.4 ± 4.2*<0.0001
Fasting insulin (mU/l)8.4 ± 4.412.1 ± 5.911 ± 7.3<0.002
120′ OGTT glucose (mmol/l)5.98 ± 1.1*9.07 ± 0.96*13.2 ± 2.2<0.0001
120′ OGTT insulin (mU/l)30.6 (20.4–52.5)96.4 (61.2–178.3)52.1 (37–96)<0.0001
A1C (%)4.83 ± 0.514.85 ± 0.427.1 ± 1.7*<0.0001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)53.3 ± 13.850.4 ± 10.947.4 ± 12.70.009
Triglycerides (mg/dl)81.5 (62.2–106)110.5 (80.5–156.5)181 (122.5–279)*<0.0001
Insulin sensitivity (10−4 · mU/l)#3.00 (2.19–4.8)*1.25 (0.87–2.38)0.8 (0.61–2.48)<0.0001
sTfR (μg/ml)8.1 ± 2.5**9.5 ± 2.58.9 ± 3.80.055††
Transferrin (ng/ml)246.8 ± 50.3243.3 ± 69257.8 ± 500.3
Ferritin (ng/ml)135 (88.9–220)147.9 (97.8–243.4)149 (91.1–362.3)0.1
C-reactive protein (mg/l)0.2 (0.12–0.4)0.2 (0.13–0.51)0.3 (0.23–0.8)0.002
  • Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range).

  • *

    * P < 0.0001 compared with the other two groups in post-hoc analysis.

  • P between 0.01 and <0.0001 compared with the type 2 diabetic group in post-hoc analysis.

  • P < 0.05 compared with the IGT group in post-hoc analysis.

  • §

    § P < 0.05 compared with the type 2 diabetic group in post-hoc analysis.

  • P between 0.01 and <0.0001 compared with the IGT group in post-hoc analysis.

  • Measured in all subjects except 68 patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • #

    # Measured in 60 subjects with NGT, 28 with IGT, and 7 with previously unknown type 2 diabetes.

  • **

    ** P = 0.07 compared with the IGT group.

  • ††

    †† P = 0.002 when considering nonobese subjects (then the numbers were 8.2 ± 2.3 in the NGT group, 11.2 ± 5.2 in the IGT group, and 9.3 ± 4.2 in the type 2 diabetic group; P = 0.003 in IGT group when compared with the NGT group in post-hoc analysis).