Table 2—

RR of cancer according to fasting and postload glucose in quartiles in the Västerbotten Intervention Project, northern Sweden

1 (referent)234Ptrend*
Women
    All sites
Fasting glucose (n = 1,428)
    No cases270290354514
    Rate458430473587
    RR (95% CI)10.94 (0.79–1.11)1.03 (0.87–1.21)1.26 (1.09–1.47)<0.001
Postload glucose (n = 1,328)
    No cases261267345455
    Rate430460474549
    RR (95% CI)11.09 (0.92–1.29)1.11 (0.95–1.31)1.31 (1.12–1.52)<0.001
    Breast
Fasting (n = 510)
    RR (95% CI)10.92 (0.70–1.21)1.03 (0.79–1.34)1.06 (0.82–1.37)0.454
Postload (n = 479)
    RR (95% CI)10.93 (0.70–1.24)1.22 (0.95–1.59)1.20 (0.93–1.55)0.069
    Breast (aged <49 years)
Fasting (n = 92)
    RR (95% CI)10.65 (0.26–1.5)1.88 (1.0–3.6)2.13 (1.2–4.1)0.002
Postload (n = 88)
    RR (95% CI)11.02 (0.50–2.1)1.86 (1.1–3.5)1.37 (0.73–2.6)0.213
    Breast (aged ≥49 years)
Fasting (n = 418)
    RR (95% CI)10.91 (0.69–1.2)0.94 (0.72–1.2)0.90 (0.68–1.2)0.492
Postload (n = 391)
    RR (95% CI)11.01 (0.75–1.4)1.08 (0.81–1.4)1.23 (0.93–1.6)0.113
    Ovarian
Fasting (n = 90)
    RR (95% CI)10.39 (0.19–0.78)0.76 (0.42–1.35)0.89 (0.52–1.54)0.824
Postload (n = 84)
    RR (95% CI)10.64 (0.32–1.23)0.71 (0.38–1.30)0.94 (0.53–1.65)0.955
    Endometrium
Fasting (n = 117)
    RR (95% CI)11.32 (0.73–2.46)1.16 (0.63–2.17)1.86 (1.09–3.31)0.019
Postload (n = 109)
    RR (95% CI)11.37 (0.75–2.57)0.84 (0.44–1.61)1.82 (1.07–3.23)0.028
Men
    All sites
Fasting glucose (n = 1,241)
    No cases257265289430
    Rate454436452475
    RR (95% CI)10.99 (0.83–1.17)1.02 (0.86–1.21)1.08 (0.92–1.27)0.259
Postload glucose (n = 1,150)
    No cases248246281375
    Rate477437446458
    RR (95% CI)10.93 (0.78–1.11)0.97 (0.82–1.16)0.98 (0.84–1.16)0.992
    Prostate
Fasting (n = 458)
    RR (95% CI)11.02 (0.77–1.35)0.97 (0.73–1.29)0.96 (0.74–1.26)0.713
    Postload (n = 425)
    RR (95% CI)10.83 (0.62–1.10)0.71 (0.53–0.95)0.79 (0.61–1.02)0.074
Women and men combined
    Stomach
Fasting (n = 71)
    RR (95% CI)10.99 (0.42–2.21)1.36 (0.70–2.73)1.46 (0.75–2.94)0.205
Postload (n = 63)
    RR (95% CI)11.53 (0.74–3.22)1.35 (0.64–2.88)1.23 (0.59–2.63)0.717
    Colon
Fasting (n = 147)
    RR (95% CI)10.95 (0.55–1.62)0.90 (0.56–1.46)1.16 (0.74–1.85)0.470
Postload (n = 138)
    RR (95% CI)11.13 (0.66–1.94)1.17 (0.70–1.97)1.23 (0.76–2.03)0.422
    Rectum
Fasting (n = 87)
    RR (95% CI)11.18 (0.59–2.32)0.99 (0.53–1.87)1.13 (0.62–2.12)0.782
Postload (n = 82)
    RR (95% CI)10.63 (0.30–1.27)1.10 (0.61–2.01)0.90 (0.49–1.66)0.978
    Pancreas
Fasting (n = 62)
    RR (95% CI)11.19 (0.47–2.97)1.11 (0.49–2.59)2.49 (1.23–5.45)0.006
Postload (n = 56)
    RR (95% CI)10.42 (0.16–0.97)0.57 (0.26–1.23)0.91 (0.47–1.78)0.910
    Kidney
Fasting (n = 44)
    RR (95% CI)11.35 (0.46–3.97)1.49 (0.60–4.02)2.08 (0.88–5.50)0.092
Postload (n = 41)
    RR (95% CI)11.40 (0.49–4.27)1.97 (0.77–5.68)1.76 (0.69–5.06)0.247
    Urinary tract
Fasting (n = 97)
    RR (95% CI)11.05 (0.50–2.20)1.38 (0.75–2.61)1.69 (0.95–3.16)0.049
Postload (n = 83)
    RR (95% CI)11.31 (0.72–2.40)0.85 (0.43–1.65)1.18 (0.65–2.17)0.781
    Respiratory tract
Fasting (n = 114)
    RR (95% CI)11.08 (0.58–1.98)0.83 (0.47–1.48)1.40 (0.85–2.38)0.178
Postload (n = 104)
    RR (95% CI)10.88 (0.48–1.59)1.19 (0.68–2.06)1.13 (0.67–1.94)0.510
    Melanoma
Fasting (n = 92)
    RR (95% CI)11.41 (0.66–3.04)2.14 (1.15–4.24)2.16 (1.14–4.35)0.013
Postload (n = 88)
    RR (95% CI)11.16 (0.59–2.30)1.50 (0.80–2.89)1.65 (0.89–3.17)0.086
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Fasting (n = 89)
    RR (95% CI)10.84 (0.42–1.64)0.99 (0.56–1.77)0.89 (0.49–1.62)0.786
Postload (n = 77)
    RR (95% CI)13.06 (1.42–7.35)3.05 (1.42–7.30)2.53 (1.16–6.11)0.081
  • *

    * Test for trend was performed using class medians as scores.

  • Directly standardized rate per 100,000 person-years.

  • Risk ratio estimated from Poisson model with likelihood ratio CIs. Risk was adjusted for age, calendar year, and smoking, by including these covariates into the statistical model.