Table 2—

Likelihood of individual metabolic abnormalities and risk factors of the metabolic syndrome among Hispanic elders by quartile of television viewing time

Quartiles of television viewing time (h/day)
PtrendPtrendPtrend§
1 [1.0 (0–1.5)]*2 [2.0 (1.6–3.4)]3 [4.0 (3.5–5.5)]4 [7.0 (5.6–18.0)]
Individual metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome
Abdominal obesity (%)40.936.645.956.3
    OR (95% CI)§11.2 (0.4–3.0)1.5 (0.7–3.6)2.2 (0.8–5.9)0.060.120.10
Hypertriglyceridemia (%)33.343.242.046.5
    OR (95% CI)§11.5 (0.9–2.8)1.4 (0.7–2.6)1.7 (0.9–3.2)>0.2>0.2>0.2
Low HDL cholesterol (%)32.327.039.050.0
    OR (95% CI)§10.9 (0.4–2.0)1.2 (0.5–2.7)2.5 (1.0–5.9)0.020.020.01
High blood pressure (%)76.680.582.988.5
    OR (95% CI)11.4 (0.7–3.1)1.4 (0.6–3.3)2.5 (1.0–6.0)0.040.090.09
High fasting glucose (%)50.449.350.051.8
    OR (95% CI)11.1 (0.6–1.9)1.3 (0.7–2.4)1.5 (0.8–2.9)0.14>0.20.15
Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome
High total–to–HDL cholesterol ratio (%)40.946.047.056.1
    OR (95% CI)11.2 (0.7–2.1)1.3 (0.7–2.4)2.0 (1.1–3.7)0.010.030.04
High waist-to-hip ratio (%)67.774.379.682.9
    OR (95% CI)11.6 (0.8–3.1)2.3 (1.1–4.8)3.9 (1.8–8.4)#0.00030.00080.0006
High BMI (%)29.032.032.736.0
    OR (95% CI)11.2 (0.6–2.4)1.4 (0.7–2.7)1.4 (0.7–2.8)>0.2>0.2>0.2
  • Abdominal obesity, waist circumference >102 cm in men or >88 cm in women; hypertriglyceridemia, plasma triacylglycerol ≥1.7 mmol/l (150 mg/dl); low HDL cholesterol, <1.04 mmol/l (40 mg/dl) in men or <1.30 mmol/l (50 mg/dl) in women; high blood pressure, ≥130/85 mmHg, or current use of antihypertensive medication; and high fasting glucose, ≥5.55 mmol/l (100 mg/dl), or current use of medications for diabetes (insulin or oral medicines). Cutoff points for risk factors are: plasma total–to–HDL cholesterol ratio >4.5; waist-to-hip ratio >0.90 in men or >0.85 in women; BMI ≥30 kg/m2.

  • *

    * Median (range) (hours/day).

  • Adjusted for age (years), sex, ethnicity, BMI (except for abdominal obesity, high waist-to-hip ratio, and high BMI), education (years), household arrangement (married/lives with spouse, unmarried/lives with others, and unmarried/lives alone), smoking (current, former, and never), and current alcohol use (heavy drinker: more than one drink/day for women or two drinks/day for men, moderate drinker: less than these, and nondrinker, based on 13.2 g alcohol/drink).

  • Additionally adjusted for total energy intake (MJ/day), saturated fat intake (% total energy), polyunsaturated fat intake (% total energy), trans fat intake (% total energy), fruit and vegetable intake (servings/day), and physical activity score (in quartiles).

  • §

    § Additionally adjusted for activities of daily living score.

  • P < 0.05 and

  • #

    # P < 0.01, relative to the lowest quartile.