Table 1—

Cohort studies of moderately intense physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes

Lead author, year (ref.)CountrySexAge (years)N/n casesModerate-intensity activityDiabetes assessmentFollow-up (years)Adjustments
Helmrich, 1991 (13)U.S.M39–685,990/202Nonvigorous (∼5 MET h) sports only vs. no sports participation; walking: ≥15 vs. <5 blocks/daySelf-report of physician diagnosis14Age
Lynch, 1996 (14)FinlandM42–60897/46Activities requiring <5.5 MET h for at least 2 h/week (yes vs. no)OGTT or self-report of antidiabetes medication4.2Age, BMI, baseline glucose level, duration of vigorous activities
Hu FB, 1999 (15)U.S.F40–6570,912/1,419Walking in MET h/week among those who did not perform vigorous activities (highest [≥10 MET h/week] vs. lowest [≤0.5 MET h/week] quintile)Self-report of physician diagnosis (validated)8Age, BMI, smoking, menopausal status, hormone therapy, parental history of diabetes, alcohol use, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia
Folsom, 2000 (16)U.S.F55–6934,257/1,997Frequency of activities ≤6.0 MET h (>4 times/week vs. rare or never)Self-report of physician diagnosis12Age, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol use, hormone therapy use, family history of diabetes, dietary factors
Okada, 2000 (17)JapanM35–606,013/444Weekend leisure-time activity (gardening, home repairs, shopping) vs. being sedentary during weekendsOGTT10Age, BMI, alcohol use, smoking status, hypertension, parental history of diabetes, weekday physical activity
Wannamethee, 2000 (18)U.K.M40–595,159/196Regular walking or recreational activities (gardening and home repairs) vs. sedentaryPrimary care records16.9Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, social class, preexisting coronary heart disease
Hu FB, 2001 (19)U.S.M40–7537,918/1,058Walking in MET h/week (highest vs. lowest quintile)Self-report of physician diagnosis (validated)10Age, smoking, parental history of diabetes, hypertension, BMI, dietary factors, vigorous exercise
Hu G, 2003 (20)FinlandM/F35–6414,290/373Leisure-time physical activity (walking, cycling, light gardening) >4 h/week vs. lessNational registries12Age, BMI, study year, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, education, other physical activity
Weinstein, 2004 (21)U.S.F≥4537,878/1,361Walking (≥4 h/week vs. none)Self-report of physician diagnosis (validated)6.9Age, BMI, family history of diabetes, alcohol use, smoking, hormone therapy, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, dietary factors, treatment group, other physical activity
Hsia, 2005 (22)U.S.FPost-menopausal87,907/2,271Walking (highest [>10 MET h/week] vs. lowest [0 MET h/week] quintile)Self-report of antidiabetes medicaton5.1Age, BMI, alcohol use, education, smoking status, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, dietary factors
  • MET = work metabolic rate/resting metabolic rate. OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.