Table 2—

Cross-sectional studies of moderately intense physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes

Lead author, year (ref.)CountrySexAge (years)N/n casesOutcome assessmentClassification moderate-intensity activityOR (95% CI)Adjustments
James, 1998 (23)U.S.M/F30–55916/78Type 2 diabetes: FBG or use of antidiabetes medicationWalking for ≥15 min at a time or home maintenance/gardening vs. inactive0.51 (0.20–1.28)Age, sex, education, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio
Baan, 1999 (24)NetherlandsM55–75503/69Type 2 diabetes: 2-h postload glucose or use of antidiabetes medicationWalking (≥285 vs. <60 min/week)1.45 (0.63–3.32)Age, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, family history of diabetes, smoking
Bicycling (yes vs. no)0.26 (0.14–0.49)
Gardening (yes vs. no)0.56 (0.29–1.06)
F55–75513/49Same as male participantsWalking (≥270 vs. <45 min/week)1.05 (0.47–2.36)Same as male participants
Bicycling (yes vs. no)0.37 (0.18–0.78)
Gardening (yes vs. no)0.46 (0.21–1.01)
Defay, 2001 (25)FranceM>601,113/213Type 2 diabetes: FBG or use of antidiabetes medicationUsual intensity of household activities (moderate vs. light)0.67 (0.48–0.94)None
F>601,419/132Same as male participantsUsual intensity of household activities (moderate vs. light)0.61 (0.40–0.95)None
van Dam, 2002 (26)NetherlandsM69–89424/90IGT or newly detected type 2 diabetes: OGTTTaking walks (>20 min/day vs. none)0.92 (0.46–1.88)Age, other physical activities
Bicycling (>20 min/day vs. none)0.37 (0.20–0.70)
Gardening (>20 min/day vs. none)0.33 (0.16–0.66)
Combe, 2004 (27)FranceM20–743,759/299Newly detected type 2 diabetes: FBGWalking >1 h/day (yes vs. no)0.81 (0.64–1.04)None
Dunstan, 2004 (28)AustraliaM≥258,299/1,555 (men and women)IFG, IGT, or newly detected type 2 diabetes: OGTTWalking and “other” moderate-intensity activities (≥2.5 vs. <2.5 h/week)0.96 (0.66–1.40)Age, sex, education, family history of diabetes, smoking, dietary factors, TV watching, waist circumference
F≥25Same as male participantsWalking and “other” moderate-intensity activities (≥2.5 vs. <2.5 h/week)0.73 (0.53–1.01)Same as male participants
  • FBP, fasting blood glucose; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.