Table 3—

ORs (95% CI) for diabetes by quintile of serum selenium levels

Quintile 1 (<111.62 ng/ml)Quintile 2 (111.62–120.17 ng/ml)Quintile 3 (120.18–128.25 ng/ml)Quintile 4 (128.26–137.65 ng/ml)Quintile 5 (≥137.66 ng/ml)
Cases/noncases285/1,708306/1,669251/1,545226/1,309311/1,266
Model 11.00 (reference)1.22 (0.87–1.72)1.03 (0.75–1.42)1.13 (0.83–1.53)1.43 (1.02–2.01)
Model 21.00 (reference)1.40 (0.99–1.98)1.05 (0.74–1.48)1.12 (0.81–1.55)1.60 (1.18–2.16)
Model 31.00 (reference)1.40 (0.97–2.00)1.03 (0.73–1.47)1.15 (0.82–1.62)1.57 (1.16–2.13)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age (continuous), sex (male or female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, or other). Model 2 was further adjusted for education (≥12 years of school completed or <12 years of school completed), family income (≥$20,000 or <$20,000), postmenopausal status for women (yes or no), cigarette smoking (current, former, or never), serum cotinine (continuous), alcohol consumption (current, former, or never), physical activity (0, 1–2, or ≥3 times per week ), BMI (continuous), C-reactive protein (≥1.0, 0.3–0.9, or <0.3 mg/dl), hypercholesterolemia (yes or no), serum triglycerides (continuous), hypertension (yes or no), glomerular filtration rate (continuous), vitamin/mineral supplement use (yes or no), and intake of β-carotene (continuous), vitamin C (continuous), and vitamin E (continuous). Model 3 was further adjusted for serum levels of albumin (continuous), α-carotene (continuous and log-transformed), β-carotene (continuous and log-transformed), β-cryptoxanthin (continuous and log-transformed), lutein/zeaxanthin (continuous and log-transformed), lycopene (continuous and log-transformed), uric acid (continuous), vitamin C (continuous and log-transformed), and vitamin E (continuous and log-transformed).