Table 2—

Risk factor levels (aggregated across follow-up) of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome, health behaviors, and other sample characteristics according to cumulative prevalence over average 15 years of the metabolic syndrome, defined via the WHO, the ATP III, and the IDF clinical criteria

WHO
ATP III
IDF
NoYestNoYestNoYest
n39141295137268164
Risk factor levels
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl)86.4 ± 8.1115.2 ± 27.26.884.6 ± 5.898.2 ± 20.97.384.5 ± 5.696.6 ± 19.67.8
    Waist circumference (cm)79.1 ± 10.096.9 ± 13.88.175.8 ± 7.691.6 ± 11.514.675.5 ± 7.889.6 ± 11.613.9
    Waist-to-hip ratio0.78 ± 0.050.83 ± 0.066.90.76 ± 0.050.82 ± 0.0513.40.75 ± 0.050.82 ± 0.0513.2
    BMI (kg/m2)25.8 ± 4.232.9 ± 6.46.924.6 ± 3.430.4 ± 5.411.524.5 ± 3.429.6 ± 5.410.9
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)102.7 ± 49.7157.08 ± 60.26.535.3 ± 2.162.9 ± 5.410.086.6 ± 32.1142.7 ± 61.710.8
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)61.6 ± 13.949.5 ± 11.0−5.465.2 ± 13.150.2 ± 10.1−13.065.4 ± 12.952.3 ± 12.0−10.9
    SBP (mmHg)114.6 ± 13.8122.6 ± 10.034.7112.2 ± 13.3122.1 ± 12.17.4111.5 ± 13.2121.5 ± 12.110.5
    DBP (mmHg)71.8 ± 7.673.6 ± 7.41.570.8 ± 7.774.5 ± 6.84.970.5 ± 7.474.3 ± 7.35.2
Health behaviors
    Physical activity (kcal/week)1,632 ± 1,4711,154 ± 913−3.01,664 ± 1,4351,420 ± 1,425−1.71,640 ± 1,3651,499 ± 1,539−1.0
    Alcohol consumption (g/week)11.8 ± 10.68.2 ± 9.7−2.012.3 ± 10.69.6 ± 10.5−2.511.8 ± 10.210.8 ± 11.2−1.0
    Smoking status: yes115 (29.4)13 (31.7)0.1 (1)82 (27.8)46 (33.6)1.5 (1)74 (27.6)54 (32.9)1.4 (1)
Other characteristics
    Age (years)49.1 ± 1.648.6 ± 1.6−1.849.0 ± 1.549.1 ± 1.71.148.9 ± 1.549.1 ± 1.61.3
    HRT: yes45 (11.5)4 (9.8)0.1 (1)32 (10.8)17 (12.4)0.2 (1)25 (9.3)24 (14.6)2.9 (1)
    Level of education: high school20 (48.8)102 (26.1)11.6 (3)73 (24.7)49 (35.8)9.7 (3)63 (23.5)59 (36.0)10.2 (3)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). t values represent differences between the groups in independent sample t tests: t > 1.96, P < 0.05; t > 2.56, P < 0.01; t > 3.29, P < 0.001; differences between the groups in smoking, hormone replacement therapy and level of education are reported as χ2statistics (df); none of the differences between the groups in smoking or in hormone replacement therapy are significant, P > 0.09, whereas all the differences between the groups in level of education are significant, P < 0.02. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.