Table 4—

Associations between psychosocial factors with the risk over 15 years of follow-up of developing the metabolic syndrome via the WHO, the ATP III, and the IDF clinical criteria

Psychosocial factorsWHOATP IIIIDF
Depressive symptoms
    Unadjusted1.43 (1.00–2.03)1.35 (1.10–1.65)1.21 (1.01–1.44)
    Full model1.27 (0.89–1.80)1.29 (1.04–1.60)1.16 (0.96–1.40)
Trait anger
    Unadjusted1.20 (0.88–1.64)1.32 (1.09–1.58)1.20 (1.02–1.42)
    Full model1.14 (0.84–1.55)1.30 (1.08–1.57)1.18 (0.99–1.40)
Trait anxiety
    Unadjusted1.19 (0.85–1.67)1.06 (0.87–1.29)1.05 (0.88–1.26)
    Full model1.08 (0.76–1.54)1.07 (0.87–1.32)1.04 (0.87–1.25)
Framingham tension
    Unadjusted1.25 (0.91–1.71)1.24 (1.03–1.50)1.19 (1.00–1.41)
    Full model1.19 (0.86–1.64)1.22 (1.00–1.48)1.18 (0.99–1.40)
Perceived stress
    Unadjusted1.66 (1.15–2.39)1.19 (0.97–1.46)1.12 (0.93–1.34)
    Full model1.54 (1.07–2.32)1.17 (0.95–1.43)1.09 (0.91–1.30)
None/mild vs. at least one very severe stressful life event
    Unadjusted2.12 (1.06–4.25)1.49 (1.00–2.23)1.40 (0.98–2.01)
    Full model2.19 (1.08–4.45)1.51 (1.00–2.27)1.41 (0.98–2.03)
  • Data are RR (95% CI), adjusted for age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, current smoking status, use of HRT, and level of education. RR indicates relative risk in Cox proportional hazards model. Psychosocial factors were log-transformed (log + 1 for scales involving 0) where appropriate, and continuous scores were standardized to allow comparability between scales.