Table 1—

Clinical profile, patterns of drug use, and clinical end points in 6,386 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients without a history of CHD or stroke divided according to number of attained treatment targets at baseline

Targets achieved
P
2–310
n1,9702,6181,798
Baseline profiles
    Male sex45.545.743.10.142*
    Age (years)52.3 ± 0.356.6 ± 0.358.8 ± 0.30.023
    Duration of diabetes (years)5.5 ± 0.16.8 ± 0.18.2 ± 0.2<0.001
    Current smoker21.119.820.90.847*
    Ex-smoker12.413.314.00.152*
    Sensory neuropathy21.525.329.9<0.001*
    Retinopathy17.526.234.9<0.001*
    Peripheral arterial disease3.45.77.4<0.001*
    BMI (kg/m2)24.6 ± 0.125.2 ± 0.125.4 ± 0.1<0.001
    Waist circumference (cm)83.9 ± 0.286.0 ± 0.287.4 ± 0.2<0.001
    Systolic BP (mmHg)123 ± 0.4136 ± 0.4146 ± 0.4<0.001
    Diastolic BP (mmHg)71 ± 0.276 ± 0.283 ± 0.2<0.001
    A1C (%)6.60 ± 0.047.65 ± 0.038.01 ± 0.04<0.001
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.58 ± 0.025.35 ± 0.025.81 ± 0.02<0.001
    Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.14 (0.89)1.38 (0.98)1.51 (1.06)<0.001§
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.30 (0.46)1.25 (0.44)1.24 (0.42)<0.001§
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.75 ± 0.033.33 ± 0.023.70 ± 0.02<0.001
    ACR (mg/mmol/l)1.11 (3.43)1.83 (8.01)3.71 (21.17)<0.001§
    eGFR (ml/min per 1.73m2)90.8 ± 3.291.1 ± 2.785.3 ± 3.30.347
    With eGFR <6012.216.419.0<0.001*
    Hemoglobin (g/dl)13.5 ± 0.013.8 ± 014.1 ± 0<0.001*
    Diet treatment16.510.04.9<0.001*
    Oral antidiabetes drugs55.460.964.9<0.001*
    Insulin12.717.520.9<0.001*
    Antihypertensive drugs26.634.134.6<0.001*
    ACEIs or ARBs16.519.821.5<0.001*
    Use of LLD12.111.610.10.047*
End points
    CHD4.17.910.7<0.001*
    Stroke2.94.96.8<0.001*
    Diabetic nephropathy4.39.713.9<0.001*
    Cancer5.05.85.20.759*
    All-cause death7.09.111.5<0.001*
  • Data are percent, mean ± SE, or median (IQR).

  • *

    * Mantel-Haenszel χ2.

  • Derived from ANOVA, and P values are for trend.

  • Two means with ‡ are not significant at 5% of level, using Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons and all other pairwise comparisons of means are significant at 5% of level. §Derived from Kruskal-Wallis test, and no multiple comparison made. BP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated GFR; LLD, lipid-lowering drugs.