Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of subjects

TotalStage IStage IIStage IIIStage IVStage VPData availability
n (%)8,8975,152 (58)2,812 (32)657 (7)242 (2.6)34 (0.4)
Age (years)63 ± 1161 ± 1164 ± 1167 ± 1269 ± 1163 ± 12<0.0001100
Male666663727082<0.0001100
BMI (kg/m2)24.3 ± 3.824.1 ± 3.724.7 ± 4.025.1 ± 4.123.8 ± 3.923.9 ± 4.0<0.0001100
Count of ACR measurements (3/2/1/0)3,209/2,006/3,167/239 (37/23/37/3)2,091/1,308/1,753/0 (41/25/34/0)950/627/1,235/0 (34/22/44/0)168/71/179/239 (26/11/27/36)
Duration (years)12 ± 911 ± 812 ± 815 ± 1017 ± 1117 ± 11<0.0001100
A1C7.1 ± 1.26.9 ± 1.17.3 ± 1.37.4 ± 1.36.7 ± 1.26.5 ± 2.5<0.000199.8
Diet/tablet/insulin19/57/2423/59/1815/59/269/49/4214/36/5015/12/73<0.0001100
Hypertension*615268859279<0.000199.5
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130 ± 17127 ± 15133 ± 16137 ± 19139 ± 22139 ± 16<0.000199.3
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 ± 1175 ± 1076 ± 1176 ± 1274 ± 1275 ± 10<0.000199.3
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)80 ± 6666 ± 1669 ± 19106 ± 40301 ± 120770 ± 179<0.000192.1
Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min per 1.73 m2)66.6 ± 18.271.1 ± 13.567.8 ± 15.550.4 ± 19.817.0 ± 6.95.9 ± 1.6<0.000192.1
Glomerular filtration rate <60 (%)113754100100<0.000192.1
Antihypertensive agents usage (0/1/2/3)49/26/16/957/25/13/544/30/18/824/25/28/2316/17/28/3929/24/18/29<0.0001100
    ARB or ACE inhibitor2,964 (33)1,452 (28)986 (35)380 (58)133 (55)13 (38)<0.0001
    CCB3,044 (34)1,391 (27)1,114 (40)356 (54)166 (69)17 (50)<0.0001
    β-blockers504 (6)220 (4)194 (7)56 (9)30 (12)4 (12)<0.0001
    α-blockers254 (3)105 (2)73 (3)37 (6)35 (15)4 (12)<0.0001
    Diuretics819 (9)351 (7)193 (7)154 (23)106 (44)15 (44)<0.0001
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.68 ± 1.331.57 ± 2.231.75 ± 1.592.07 ± 1.681.93 ± 1.162.16 ± 2.22<0.000194.4
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.1 ± 1.05.1 ± 0.85.1 ± 0.95.3 ± 1.15.1 ± 1.44.7 ± 1.2<0.000189.8
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.5<0.000188.5
Antihyperlipidemic agents (0/1/2)66/32/268/31/165/33/263/34/353/44/362/38/0<0.0001100
    Use of aspirin11813181918<0.0001100
Attainment of goals
A1C <6.5%313526214262<0.0001
Blood pressure <130/80 mmHg424834292724<0.0001
Total cholesterol <5.2 mmol/l5555554960670.029
Triglycerides <1.68 mmol/l636764505063<0.0001
HDL cholesterol >1.03 mmol/l838584756365<0.0001
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD, or percentages unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140, diastolic blood pressure ≥90, or taking antihypertensives. Glomerular filtration rate 186 × (Scr + 0.2)−1.154 × age−0.203 × 0.742 (if female) × 0.881 (by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease method refitted for Japanese patients). CCB, calcium channel blocker.