Table 2

Glycemic control, insulin therapy, and hospital complications in patients treated with a basal-bolus insulin regimen with and without bedtime insulin supplementation

Supplement group
(n = 106)No-supplement group
(n = 100)P value
Glycemic control
 Hemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol [%])75 ± 26 [9.0 ± 2.4]75 ± 27 [9.0 ± 2.5]0.92
 Admission BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])11.5 ± 4.2 [207 ± 76]11.9 ± 4.2 [215 ± 76]0.38
 Randomization BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])11.9 ± 3.1 [214 ± 56]11.9 ± 3.0 [214 ± 54]0.88
 Fasting BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.8 ± 2.4 [159 ± 44]8.6 ± 2.2 [155 ± 40]0.76
 Prelunch BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.8 ± 2.1 [159 ± 38]9.2 ± 2.2 [166 ± 40]0.36
 Predinner BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])7.9 ± 4.2 [142 ± 40]8.1 ± 1.7 [146 ± 30]0.12
 Bedtime BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])9.0 ± 2.2 [163 ± 39]9.3 ± 2.2 [167 ± 40]0.19
 3:00 a.m. BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.7 ± 2.5 [156 ± 45]8.8 ± 2.6 [158 ± 46]0.69
 Daily BG (mmol/L [mg/dL])8.7 ± 1.8 [157 ± 32]8.8 ± 1.7 [159 ± 31]0.35
 Target fasting BG 3.9–7.8 mmol/L76 (72)74 (74)0.71
 BG >16.6 mmol/L13 (12)19 (19)0.49
Insulin therapy
 Insulin TDD (units/day)39 ± 2344 ± 330.46
 Glargine dose (units/kg/day)0.3 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.20.30
 Aspart dose (units/kg/day)0.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.20.61
 Supplemental insulin dose (units/day)6 ± 36 ± 40.79
 Received bedtime supplement70 (66)8 (8)<0.001
 Bedtime supplemental insulin dose (units/day)2 ± 14 ± 30.003
Hospital complications
 Pneumonia1 (1)0 (0)1.00
 Acute kidney injury4 (4)4 (4)1.00
 Cardiovascular event3 (3)1 (1)0.62
 Respiratory failure1 (1)0 (0)1.00
 Nosocomial infection0 (0)0 (0)N/A
 Other complications4 (4)4 (4)1.00
Hypoglycemic events
 Any BG <2.2 mmol/L0 (0)1 (1)0.49
 Any BG <3.9 mmol/L32 (30)26 (26)0.50
 Fasting BG <3.9 mmol/L 9 (8)11 (11)0.64
 3:00 a.m. BG <3.9 mmol/L7 (7)3 (3)0.33
 Bedtime BG <3.9 mmol/L9 (8)7 (7)0.80
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%). All data are calculated beginning the day after randomization. BG SI unit conversion from mmol/L to mg/dL: 2.2 mmol/L = 40 mg/dL, 3.9 mmol/L = 70 mg/dL, 7.8 mmol/L = 140 mg/dL, 16.6 mmol/L = 300 mg/dL. N/A, not applicable; randomization BG, glucose level at the time of obtaining consent and inclusion in the study.