Table 2—

Clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients according to incident coronary events

Men
Women
Without eventWith eventPWithout eventWith eventP
n5,1634495,600432
Age at visit (years)*64 ± 0.266 ± 0.8<0.00166 ± 0.268 ± 0.7<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)*28 ± 0.128 ± 0.429 ± 0.129 ± 0.5
Waist girth (cm)*100 ± 0.3101 ± 1.196 ± 0.497 ± 1.2
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)*207 ± 1.3211 ± 3.8220 ± 1.1221 ± 4.1
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)*48 ± 0.448 ± 1.352 ± 0.451 ± 1.4
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)*131 ± 1.0134 ± 3.4139 ± 1.0138 ± 3.9
Duration of diabetes (years)79<0.001810<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)140145150145
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80808080
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)153159158161
Triglycerides (mg/dl)127129133143<0.01
Hypertension78.8 ± 1.187.0 ± 3.2<0.00186.0 ± 0.990.3 ± 2.9<0.05
A1C (%)§
    20–5028.8 ± 1.331.2 ± 4.431.5 ± 1.332.2 ± 4.5
    >5012.4 ± 0.914.4 ± 3.315.9 ± 1.017.7 ± 3.7
Alcohol intake58.2 ± 1.459.2 ± 4.621.1 ± 1.118.3 ± 3.7
Smoking habits
    Never48.0 ± 1.444.1 ± 4.787.3 ± 0.988.4 ± 3.1
    Current21.2 ± 1.120.3 ± 3.87.5 ± 0.77.6 ± 2.6
    Former30.8 ± 1.335.6 ± 4.55.2 ± 0.63.9 ± 1.9
Familiarity for CVD25.7 ± 1.223.4 ± 4.030.0 ± 1.230.8 ± 4.4
Microvascular complications34.4 ± 1.342.1 ± 4.7<0.0132.8 ± 1.343.3 ± 4.8<0.001
Antidiabetes treatment
    Diet19.0 ± 1.114.3 ± 3.314.2 ± 0.911.3 ± 3.1
    OHA67.4 ± 1.367.5 ± 4.467.5 ± 1.362.3 ± 4.7
    OHA + insulin5.4 ± 0.68.9 ± 2.7<0.018.9 ± 0.811.1 ± 3.0<0.001
Insulin8.2 ± 0.89.4 ± 2.79.4 ± 0.815.3 ± 3.5
Lipid-lowering treatment
    None90.1 ± 0.889.3 ± 2.983.1 ± 1.078.7 ± 3.9
    Statins5.8 ± 0.66.5 ± 2.311.7 ± 0.913.9 ± 3.3
    Fibrates3.3 ± 0.54.0 ± 1.94.2 ± 0.55.6 ± 2.2
    Statins + fibrates0.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.7
    Other0.7 ± 0.20.2 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.21.4 ± 1.1
Geographic area
    North56.6 ± 1.462.1 ± 4.649.5 ± 1.348.6 ± 4.8
    Center10.5 ± 0.911.4 ± 3.0<0.0510.9 ± 0.811.1 ± 3.0
    South and islands32.9 ± 1.326.5 ± 4.239.5 ± 1.340.3 ± 4.7
  • Data are

  • * mean ±2 SE,

  • median, or

  • percent ±2 SE.

  • § Proportion of patients with A1C values above the unit-based upper limit of normal by the indicated percentage. Such upper limit was between 5.5 and 6.4% in ∼70% of the centers; the mean was 6.1%. The mean A1C level was 7.4 in women and 7.1% in men.