Table 1—

Clinical characteristics* and correlations of plasma visfatin with cardiovascular risk factors

Continuous measuresMeans ± SDCorrelations with log plasma
Spearman's rank coefficientP
Age (years)45 ± 60.090.07
BMI (kg/m2)27.7 ± 6.4−0.060.24
Waist circumference (cm)95 ± 17−0.030.57
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)119 ± 15−0.020.76
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 ± 10−0.070.18
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)191 ± 340.030.62
HDL (mg/dl)55 ± 19−0.090.10
Triglycerides (mg/dl)117 ± 74−0.090.07
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)99 ± 26−0.060.22
Visceral adipose tissue (cm3)1,556 ± 960−0.080.13
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (cm3)2,889 ± 1,621−0.030.63
Visfatin (ng/ml)30 ± 16
Categorical measures§PercentagesAssociations with highest or lowest quintile (P)
Sex (% women)530.96
Obesity330.25
Overweight or obesity590.14
Increased waist circumference450.25
Hypertension230.042
Hypercholesterolemia140.42
Low LDL310.29
Hypertriglyceridemia290.99
Metabolic syndrome260.20
Diabetes60.58
Smoking130.45
  • * n = 374.

  • Values are age- and sex-adjusted Spearman's rank partial correlation coefficients and P values for correlations between different cardiovascular risk factors and plasma visfatin.

  • n = 355.

  • § Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2, overweight as BMI 25 to <30 kg/m2, and increased waist circumference as ≥88 cm (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Hypertension was defined as systolic pressure ≥140 or diastolic pressure ≥90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive agents. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl or use of lipid-lowering medications. Low serum HDL cholesterol was defined as <50 mg/dl (women) or <40 mg/dl (men), and hypertriglyceridemia was defined as serum concentrations ≥150 mg/dl. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III criteria by the presence of three or more of the following: increased waist circumference (defined above), elevated blood pressure (≥130 mmHg systolic or ≥85 mmHg diastolic or treatment for hypertension), hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dl or treatment for elevated glucose), hypertriglyceridemia (defined above), or low HDL cholesterol (defined above). Diabetes was defined as fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl or use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. Smoking was ascertained by self-reported cigarette use during the year preceding the examination.

  • P values are from χ2 tests for associations between the cardiovascular risk factors modeled as binary variables and plasma visfatin concentrations modeled as three categories (comparing prevalence in the lowest quintile and the highest quintile with the middle three quintiles that served as a referent).