Table 1—

Characteristics of studies examining the recurrence of GDM

Race/ethnicity*GDM criteriaGDM (n)Age at index pregnancy (years)Time between pregnanciesRate of GDM recurrence (%)Ref.
NHW
    NHW (Dutch)Center specific5827§12–48 months304
    NHW (Nova Scotia)1979 NDDG651??335
    93% NHW (Australia)ADIPS100282.4 years356
    NHW (?) (Australia)Center specific86529?377
    NHW (?) (Australia)1979 NDDG19?<12 months848
NHW and minority
    64% NHW, 36% nonwhite (Cleveland)1979 NDDG3628?569
    80% NHW, 20% non–English speaking, country of birth, including Mediterranean countries (Australia)ADIPS11727<6 years6210
    84% NHW (Washington)Birth certificate1,322??OR 2311
Predominantly minority, including Latinas
    81% African American1979 NDDG9024?5212
    93% Latina1979 NDDG16428<48 months6813
    85% Latina1979 NDDG7830<48 months6914
    JapaneseJDS322726–33 months6615
    Asian (Chinese, Filipina, Sri Lankan, Vietnamese)Center specific258??OR 1516
  • * “?” indicates that NHW ethnicity was implied, but the breakdown of population by race/ethnicity was not specified.

  • 1979 NDDG criteria for GDM are administration of a 100-g glucose load and then at least two values equaling or exceeding the following cut points: fasting glucose, 105 mg/dl; 1-h glucose, 190 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 165 mg/dl; and 3-h glucose, 145 mg/dl. ADIPS criteria for GDM are administration of a 75-g glucose load and then at least one value equaling or exceeding the following cut points: fasting glucose, 100 mg/dl; 2-h glucose, 144 mg/dl. Japan Diabetes Society criteria for GDM are administration of a 75-g glucose load and then at least two values equaling or exceeding the following cut points: fasting glucose, 100 mg/dl; 1-h glucose, 180 mg/dl; and 2-h glucose, 150 mg/dl.

  • Range of months between pregnancies given except for the study of Moses (6), which gives the average time. The range was extrapolated from the study period if the study period was <6 years.

  • § Age at subsequent pregnancy given as age at index pregnancy not available.