Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of participants

VariableAll participantsMale subjectsFemale subjectsP
n231013
Age (years)42 ± 15 (23–70)47 ± 14 (30–69)38 ± 15 (23–70)NS
Blood pressure (mmHg)
    Systolic116 ± 13 (89–142)121 ± 12 (101–137)112 ± 13 (89–142)NS
    Diastolic71 ± 7 (54–81)72 ± 8 (54–81)71 ± 6 (62–80)NS
BMI (kg/m2)25.8 ± 3.8 (20.3–32.5)26.2 ± 3.2 (21.4–29.5)25.8 ± 4.3 (20.3–32.5)NS
Waist circumference (cm)89 ± 13 (67–117)96 ± 11 (80–117)82 ± 11 (67–99)0.02
Hip circumference (cm)103 ± 9 (83–119)102 ± 9 (91–119)103 ± 10 (83–116)NS
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.5 (3.8–6.0)5.1 ± 0.4 (4.7–6.0)4.5 ± 0.4 (3.8–5.2)0.002
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)67 ± 32 (10–171)61 ± 22 (24–100)72 ± 39 (10–171)NS
HOMA*2.06 ± 1.07 (0.27–5.58)2.01 ± 0.79 (0.73–3.45)2.09 ± 1.28 (0.27–5.58)NS
Cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Total4.62 ± 0.83 (2.90–6.62)4.76 ± 0.65 (3.85–5.79)4.52 ± 0.97 (2.90–6.62)NS
    LDL2.79 ± 0.67 (1.32–4.32)3.06 ± 0.47 (2.30–3.85)2.58 ± 0.74 (1.32–4.32)0.01
    HDL1.45 ± 0.29 (1.07–2.15)1.25 ± 0.13 (1.07–1.45)1.60 ± 0.30 (1.11–2.15)NS
Triglyceride (mmol/l)0.86 ± 0.42 (0.45–2.09)1.00 ± 0.40 (0.45–1.69)0.76 ± 0.42 (0.49–2.09)NS
  • Data are means ± SD (range) unless otherwise indicated. An unpaired t test was conducted for the comparison of male vs. female subjects.

  • *

    * Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) = glucose (mmol/l) × [insulin (μU/ml)/22.5].