Table 1—

Unadjusted characteristics of women with a history of GDM by race/ethnicity

CharacteristicNHWAfrican AmericanHispanic or LatinaNA/ANA/PITotal
n3,3053895961502034,718
Age (years)33.4 (33.1–33.8)31.3 (30.0–32.6)32.9 (32.0–33.7)31.8 (31.2–32.4)35.9 (35.3–36.6)33.2 (32.9–33.5)
High school graduate (%)93.5 (92.3–94.8)92.1 (88.7–95.5)57.5 (50.9–64.2)78.9 (64.6–93.2)96.0 (91.3–100.0)84.2 (82.1–86.4)
Income >$25,000 (%)71.3 (69.0–73.7)46.8 (37.9–55.6)38.1 (31.6–44.5)57.3 (42.9–71.7)56.0 (47.0–65.0)59.4 (57.0–61.9)
Currently employed (%)65.2 (62.7–67.7)60.6 (51.2–70.0)49.0 (42.5–55.6)60.8 (46.1–75.5)40.4 (30.5–50.3)59.3 (56.9–61.7)
Married or partnered (%)76.9 (74.7–79.0)44.5 (35.8–53.3)82.3 (78.3–86.3)63.1 (48.1–78.1)67.0 (59.8–74.1)74.2 (72.2–76.2)
Children aged <18 years in house (%)86.7 (85.0–88.4)85.9 (77.0–94.9)96.3 (94.5–98.1)75.8 (59.3–92.3)91.3 (85.8–96.8)88.9 (87.5–90.4)
BMI (kg/m2)26.7 (26.4–27.0)30.4 (28.7–32.1)28.5 (27.6–29.4)29.1 (28.7–29.4)25.3 (24.4–26.1)27.4 (27.1–27.8)
Current smoker (%)30.3 (27.8–32.7)19.7 (12.7–26.7)10.5 (7.0–13.9)27.8 (16.8–38.8)11.7 (4.7–18.7)23.3 (21.4–25.2)
No health insurance (%)14.7 (12.8–16.7)19.2 (10.2–28.3)38.1 (31.7–44.4)24.1 (10.5–37.7)6.1 (1.3–11.0)20.7 (18.5–22.9)
Did not see a doctor because of cost during past year (%)*17.2 (13.5–20.8)23.4 (12.9–33.9)27.3 (16.0–38.7)18.6 (4.4–32.9)6.4 (0.0–12.9)19.6 (15.8–23.4)
No primary provider (%)14.7 (12.8–16.7)18.2 (9.0–27.3)37.3 (30.8–43.8)22.4 (10.1–34.6)34.4 (26.7–42.2)21.7 (19.6–24.0)
Primary health care facility is urgent care or emergency facility (%)13.9 (10.5–17.3)30.5 (14.2–46.9)20.5 (11.4–29.6)20.0 (0.8–39.1)14.5 (0–31.6)17.1 (13.4–20.9)
Physical examination >1 year ago (%)25.7 (21.3–30.1)19.0 (9.2–28.8)33.4 (22.4–44.4)34.7 (0.7–68.8)3.1 (0.0–7.9)26.5 (22.3–30.7)
  • Data are means or percentages (95% CI). Bold font indicates significant differences from NHWs.

  • *

    * Denominator includes 2003 respondents only.

  • Denominator includes 2002 respondents only.

  • Denominator includes 2000 respondents only.