Table 2—

Adjusted associations between racial/ethnic groups and access to health care measures

CharacteristicAfrican AmericanHispanic or LatinaNA/ANA/PI
n389596150203
Access measures*
    No health insurance0.9 (0.5–1.5)1.8 (1.3–2.5)1.3 (0.7–2.6)0.3 (0.1–0.7)
    Did not see a doctor because of cost during past year1.1 (0.4–2.6)1.5 (0.8–3.0)1.2 (0.5–3.0)0.3 (0.1–1.1)
    No primary health care provider0.9 (0.5–1.5)2.3 (1.6–3.3)1.4 (0.6–3.4)2.4 (1.6–3.6)
    Primary health care facility is emergency or urgent care facility§2.4 (1.1–5.0)1.1 (0.5–2.1)1.5 (0.4–5.5)1.3 (0.3–5.7)
    Physical examination >1 year ago0.6 (0.3–1.2)1.3 (0.7–2.4)1.4 (0.3–6.3)0.1 (<0.1–0.6)
Service measures*
    Not using family planning§#0.8 (0.4–1.6)0.6 (0.3–1.2)3.5 (1.1–11.1)1.3 (0.5–3.4)
    Cholesterol never checked**0.7 (0.4–1.1)1.3 (0.9–1.9)0.7 (0.3–1.7)0.7 (0.4–1.3)
    Cholesterol elevated**1.1 (0.6–1.9)1.2 (0.5–2.7)0.9 (0.3–3.0)0.3 (0.1–1.0)
    Blood pressure elevated**††1.4 (0.8–2.3)1.0 (0.6–1.8)1.8 (0.8–4.1)0.1 (<0.1–0.4)
Perceptions of health*
    Perception of health fair/poor1.7 (1.0–3.0)2.0 (1.3–3.0)2.3 (0.9–6.1)0.7 (0.3–1.5)
    Impaired physical health**0.9 (0.4–2.0)0.9 (0.5–1.8)0.7 (0.3–1.7)<0.1 (<0.1–0.2)
    Impaired mental health**1.1 (0.6–2.0)1.3 (0.7–2.3)1.7 (0.8–3.7)1.2 (0.4–3.5)
  • Data are odds ratios (95% CI). An elevated odds ratio indicates that race/ethnicity is associated with increased odds of the adverse outcome compared to NHWs. Bold text indicates significant differences from NHWs.

  • *

    * Models examining access measures and perceptions of health as dependent variables adjust for age, education, income, current employment, marital status, presence of children aged <18 years of age, smoking status, and BMI. Models examining service measures included these covariates, as well as lack of insurance and lack of a primary care provider.

  • Denominator includes only 2003 respondents.

  • No primary care provider includes only the “No” response; reference is ≥1 primary care provider.

  • §

    § Denominator includes only 2002 respondents.

  • Reference = doctor's office, outpatient department at hospital, community center, or public health clinic.

  • Denominator includes only 2001 respondents.

  • #

    # Not using birth control or unknown, reference = using birth control, sterile, not sexually active with men.

  • **

    ** Denominator includes only 2001 and 2003 respondents.

  • ††

    †† Reference category is “No” or “Only During Pregnancy.”