Table 1—

Baseline demographics and characteristics of the study groups (intention-to-treat groups)

CharacteristicIndividualized treatmentGroup treatment
Patients (n)6358
Sex (male/female)65/3559/41
Age (years)58 ± 158 ± 1
Weight (kg)93.8 ± 2.690.1 ± 2.8
BMI (kg/m2)31.5 ± 0.731.2 ± 0.9
Duration of diabetes (years)8 ± 17 ± 1
A1C (%)8.65 ± 0.188.79 ± 0.20
Complications/other conditions
    Hypertension5550
    Macrovascular disease1416
    Microvascular disease4755
Oral agents before insulin
    Sulfonylurea and metformin8479
    Metformin only1010
    Sulfonylurea only610
Education
    Elementary school4143
    Vocational education4448
    Academic149
  • Data are means ± SE or percentages unless otherwise indicated.