Table 1—

Sex-specific demographic, biological, physical activity, and behavioral characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicMenWomenTotalP for sex difference
n67106173
Age (years)52.7 (49.7–55.7)53.6 (51.4–55.9)53.3 (51.5–55.1)0.628
BMI (kg/m2)27.8 (26.8–28.7)26.8 (25.9–27.8)27.2 (26.5–27.9)0.187
Waist circumference (cm)98.2 (95.6–100.9)87.0 (84.8–89.2)91.4 (89.5–93.2)<0.001
Height (cm)176.3 (175.0–177.6)163.4 (162.1–164.6)168.4 (167.1–169.7)<0.001
FPG (mmol/l)5.4 (5.2–5.5)5.1 (5.0–5.2)5.2 (5.1–5.3)<0.001
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.0 (5.5–6.5)5.6 (5.3–5.8)5.7 (5.5–6.0)0.055
Plasma glucose status
    Normal glucose tolerance53 (79)96 (91)149 (86)
    Isolated IFG1 (2)1 (1)2 (1)
    Isolated IGT9 (13)8 (8)17 (10)
    IFG and IGT1 (2)1 (1)2 (1)
    Newly diagnosed diabetes3 (5)0 (0)3 (2)
Accelerometer-derived variables (average daily time in h)
    Time accelerometer worn14.8 (14.5–15.1)14.8 (14.6–15.1)14.8 (14.6–15.0)0.840
    Sedentary time*8.5 (8.2–8.8)8.3 (8.1–8.6)8.4 (8.2–8.6)0.283
    Light-intensity activity*5.6 (5.3–6.0)6.1 (5.8–6.3)5.8 (5.7–6.0)0.045
    Moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity*0.7 (0.6–0.8)0.5 (0.4–0.5)0.6 (0.5–0.6)<0.001
    Moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity by accelerometer and diary*0.8 (0.7–0.9)0.5 (0.5–0.6)0.6 (0.6–0.7)<0.001
Percent time at each activity level while accelerometer worn (%)
    Sedentary time57.2 (54.9–59.5)55.9 (54.2–57.6)56.6 (55.2–58.0)0.328
    Light-intensity activity23.0 (21.7–24.3)24.5 (23.5–25.5)23.8 (23.0–34.6)0.063
    Moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity4.5 (4.0–5.1)3.2 (2.8–3.6)3.9 (3.5–4.2)<0.001
    Moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity by accelerometer and diary5.2 (4.5–5.8)3.5 (3.1–4.0)4.3 (4.0–4.7)<0.001
Current smokers1 (2)2 (2)3 (2)0.828
Family history of diabetes11 (16)28 (26)39 (22)0.130
University/further education44 (66)52 (49)96 (56)0.038
Moderate/heavy alcohol drinkers30 (45)24 (3)54 (31)0.007
Full-time employment53 (79)42 (40)95 (55)<0.001
Household income ≥$1500/week35 (52)32 (30)67 (39)0.005
  • Data are means (95% CI) or n (%).

  • *

    * Means adjusted for time accelerometer worn; statistical comparisons are adjusted for age. Sedentary time (<100 counts/min), light-intensity activity (100–1,951 counts/min), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity (≥1,952 counts/min). IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance.